Sources

Zachary Christian

Bagheri, N. (2013). The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City – Edited by Judith N. Desena and Timothy Shortell. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie (Journal Of Economic & Social Geography), 104(2), 250-251.

This book discusses how mobility defines Brooklyn as a place of arrival and aspiration. Waves of immigrants have shaped and reshaped the borough’s neighborhoods and gentrifiers have discovered and revived its brownstone-lined streets, which changes the property value. The first chapter discusses gentrification and the changes it has brought to neighborhoods by dividing the borough into areas based on the type of demographic change recorded in the last decade. The second chapter analyzes demographic trends, using maps to show where various ethnic groups have settled over the past decade. The following chapters effectively use case studies to examine gentrification, productions of space, and politics. The book also analyzes unique perspectives such as education politics in Fort Greene. Additionally, it includes many illustrations, graphs, and tables that enhance the descriptive content written on these major parts of Brooklyn.

Lees, L. (2003). Super-gentrification: the case of Brooklyn Heights, New York City. Urban Studies (Routledge), 40(12), 2487-2509.

This paper is an empirical examination of the process of ‘super-gentrification’ in the Brooklyn neighborhoods of New York City. This latest resurgence of gentrification can be distinguished from previous rounds of revitalization. This new gentrification has been cultivated by the focus of intense investment and conspicuous consumption by a new generation of super-rich ‘financiers,’ who are backed by global finance and corporate service industries. In addition, the book poses important questions about the historical continuity of gentrification as the previous generations of neighborhoods either leave or change.

Fitts, R. K. (1999). The archaeology of middle-class domesticity and gentility in Victorian Brooklyn. Historical Archaeology, 39-62.

This book gives a detailed overview of John Milner Associates’ comprehensive investigations at the Atlantic Terminal Urban Renewal Area in the Fort Greene section of Brooklyn. It gives a detailed history on the background of gentrification in Fort Greene, Brooklyn; and the effects that it has had on the development of the neighborhood and the types of families who moved in and out of the area following the changes brought upon by gentrification. The gentrification in Fort Greene sparked the growth of a white middle class community. The growth of the white middle class population in Fort Greene, which has seen many families move into the area in recent decades, has led to the development of a new culture and domesticity in Fort Greene. The book goes on to discuss how the new large businesses and residential buildings prospering in Fort Greene are primarily funded and backed by a white-collar middle class.

Nalena Cruzado

Freeman, L. (2011). There goes the hood: Views of gentrification from the ground up. Temple University Press.

This author uses Harlem and Clinton Hill to give a better understanding of gentrification through the eyes of those being gentrified. He does research through interviews and previous studies to ultimately discover race being a key issue in gentrification for both opposing sides. The research also gives a more detailed explanation for the changes that occur during gentrification and the idea of disassembling poverty, as well as, the pros and cons to gentrification. It will help in research for Fort Greene by giving us a better grasp and knowledge of gentrification and what to look for when interviewing people. We can also imitate some of his tactics for interviewing and analyzing. It gives a detailed understanding of gentrification from the beginning to the end. How gentrification starts at an urban, poverty stricken area that is considered home to violence, gangs, and often drugs. The book discusses how gentrification affects those who are living in the area prior to the process starting. He uses real interviews and real people from areas going through gentrification. He shows the racism, the issues, and problems that original residents face, similarly to the way Dasani is presented in Ronald Contreras’ novel The Stick Up Kids.

Anderson, N. S. (2012). Charter Schools, Race and Gentrification in Fort Greene. The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City, 363.

This book gives an overview of gentrification in Brooklyn, however Chapter 15 focuses on education and the tie to gentrification in Fort Greene. Anderson takes a particular look at a study done for P.S. 67 both the public school and the charter school. He answers the question of who is benefiting from the gentrification of the school system and how it affects the children. This will help us get a better focus on the effects of gentrification on the community. This book as a whole focuses on the urban issues. It is also a collection of demographic facts of Brooklyn with the intention of showing the inequality that arises from gentrification. In particular it talks about the intertwining of the social, economic,  and racial disadvantage and advantages of the gentrification process. Pertaining to Fort Greene, a majority of these disadvantages are noticeable based on the economic and social status. The lower income people who originally dominated the area of Fort Greene are now experience a form of underlining discrimination. People who live in affordable housing are expected to pay exuberant prices for housing. The book gives a more detailed understanding of this discrimination.

Annunziata, S. URBANITY AND DESIRE: NEIGHBOURHOOD CHANGE IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMY THE CASE OF FORT GREENE, BROOKLYN.

The article gives a comprehension of positive connoted phrases towards gentrification, such as “urban villages” and “neighborhood vitality”. She uses Fort Greene as an example and gives direct comparisons from the past to the present, along with images and statistics. This article can be used as data for our project and to begin the actual walking tour video. The article gives a more thorough and comprehensive understanding of current day Fort Greene. In particular the idea that Fort Greene, though it is going through gentrification, still has the idea of a “lively working class neighborhood”. This means that though the people of the area are changing, the social economic middle class status is still prevalent. It allows for insight from the new comers into Fort Greene; to be exact how they are making positive changes for the community, yet perceiving the idea of “authenticity”.

Michael Gan

Curran, W. (2007). ‘From the Frying Pan to the Oven’: Gentrification and the Experience of Industrial Displacement in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.’ Urban Studies (Routledge), 44(8), 1427-1440.

This paper explores the effects of gentrification on industrial displacement. In this paper, Curran focuses on the gentrification of Williamsburg and the impacts that occur as a result of gentrification. While most literature surrounding gentrification focuses on the transformation of the neighborhood’s residential use, Curran emphasizes the home and work aspect of a neighborhood that is displaced as a result of gentrification. This paper relates to my topic because the situation of displacement in Fort Greene is similar to the one Curran describes in Brooklyn. All forms of displacement occur as a result of the gentrification of Fort Greene. The “original” residents of Fort Greene who rent their homes are being displaced by their landlords to make way for the newer residents of Fort Greene who are willing to pay way more to live in Fort Greene. Certain small business that don’t quite have that trendy characteristic are priced out of Fort Greene to clear space for luxury condos/ high rises. In addition, new businesses have moved into the neighborhood to capitalize upon the gentrification of the area. An example would be the Pink Tea Cup, a former mom and pop business formerly located in West Village that went out business. The current owner assumed all debts in order to capitalize upon its name and brand as a mom and pop store and relocated to Fort Greene in order to cater to the fact that half of the Pink Tea Cup’s customer base come from that area.

Heathcott, J. (2015). The bold and the bland: Art, redevelopment and the creative commons in post-industrial New York. City, 19(1), 79-101.

This paper touches upon the relationship between the arts and the redevelopment and restoration of New York City. Specifically, Heathcott examines the history of 5 Pointz, the deindustrialization of New York, and the transformation of former manufacturing districts by artists, cultural institutions, and creative networks. In the period of time after World War II, the Brooklyn Navy Yard in Fort Greene was no longer required produce a many ships and vessels as they had to during times of war. As a result of the deindustrialization of Fort Greene, the neighborhood fell on tough times and was consumed by crime and poverty. In the 80s, like the artists of 5 Pointz, Black-American artists like Spike Lee restored Fort Greene into a place to be live in. However, Lee and other residents of Fort Greene are combating gentrification as a result of the fear of ending up like the 5 Pointz building, the mecca of graffiti in New York City torn down to build luxury condos for the rich.

Foulkes, J. L. (2010). STREETS AND STAGES: URBAN RENEWAL AND THE ARTS AFTER WORLD WAR II. Journal Of Social History, 44(2), 413-434.

Julia Foulkes covers the arts and urban renewal in New York City in her essay. Specifically, Foulkes focuses on two areas: Lincoln Center and the Brooklyn Academy of Music. She provides a commentary of on the roles of Seth Faison and Harvey Lichtenstein in BAM’s revitalization. In addition, her essay contains the demographic change in Brooklyn and Manhattan. That last part especially, will help me since the change of the demographics of an area is usually a sign of what might be gentrification.

Josh Previl

Rosenberg, J. (1998). Chapter 9: Fort Greene, New York. Cityscape, 179-195.

Up until the mid 19th century Fort Greene was mainly farmland, then between 1850 and 1900 houses for middle and upper class were built attracting businesses from various parts of New York City. Racial discrimination in housing intensified and by the 1940s, Blacks had the worst housing and health conditions in Brooklyn. Although the Brooklyn Navy Yard boosted the economy during this time, the best jobs still went to Whites. The Fort Greene Houses (later called the Walt Whitman and Raymond Ingersoll Houses) were later built and housed mostly whites until rising rents pushed them out to the suburbs as their earning increased. When our group went to Fort Greene it was very visible that the more north you go (towards the Walt Whitman Housing Projects) the more minority people you see. There was also this fight going on between these two people on Myrtle Ave, which we didn’t see in the other parts of Fort Greene. Clearly there is a socioeconomic/racial divide in Fort Greene. The article provides a history as to why there is such a divide.

Eilbaum, N. (2014). The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City. Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 43(2), 201-203.

This article discusses a book by Judith DeSena that focuses on the image of Brooklyn. She states that Brooklyn is no longer the Brooklyn from the movies, with the “wise guys” or “gritty waterfront” and the “Brooklyn accent.” Brooklyn is now all about embracing “the world.” With that, comes immigration and gentrification. However, in the book, these two never cross but rather coexist in different parts of Brooklyn. The chapters on gentrification do not include concepts of immigration and vice versa. With relation to my group project, this brought to light the relation between gentrification and immigration. When one thinks of immigration the image of poor outsiders working just to get by may come to mind. However, when it comes to gentrification the image of wealthier outsiders come to mind, and it is not seen as a form of immigration although they tend to be of a different race. In terms of Fort Greene, the gentrification can be seen loosely as a combination of the immigration of wealthier whites to the south of Ft. Greene Park and the emigration of poorer minorities to the north of the park.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. Vintage.

Jane Jacobs despised city administration that tore down “viable buildings and disrupted communities to build public housing projects.” She argued that the little things like sidewalks or blocks can be vital to the success of a neighborhood. Ignoring these and focusing on things like public housing can have a negative effect on the area. With regard to Fort Greene, most of the crime in the neighborhood is near the housing projects north of the park. When the city focused on the little things in the park, such as the benches, which were being used to illegally sell car parts, the overall image of the park was uplifted. Similar to broken windows theory, focusing on cleaning up the little things can have a greater positive impact for the area, than supplying affordable housing for the poorer residents.

Ross Scopellite

Osman, S. (2011). The invention of brownstone Brooklyn: Gentrification and the search for authenticity in postwar New York. Oxford University Press.

As the 1940s rolled around, Fort Greene acclimated itself more and more with renovations within the area, becoming a post industrialist landscape full of bars, yoga studios, and expensive townhouses. As Fort Greene moved into its new name of Brownstone Brooklyn, it sent from industrial slums of the 40s and 50s toward the eventual rebranding of the 60s and 70s. As more and more white college professors sought excitement and “authenticity” outside of their own suburban lives, gentrification took hold as a grassroots movement. “Brownstoners”, the seekers of this land, this authenticity, became larger and larger as they joined with poorer residents in seeking real estate to call their own. The amount of unowned living space decreased every year, and everyone had a story to get sold the land, from need-based families to machine politicians. Only within the grip of the 1980s was this seeking of authenticity through new land shunned, and only taken seriously as newspapers paraded them as yuppies and anti-gentrification activists brought forth the issues of the movement. Only after this shunning was the search challenged, having bee finally been considered a possible failure after years of use.

Sutton, S. A. (2004). Neighborhood reengineering: from ghetto to enclave and tourist destination.

Through Sutton’s case study of Fort Greene, Brooklyn, it is evident that neighborhood entrepreneurship plays a heavy role in strengthening the, cultural, and economic fabric of a community. The way ghettos and enclaves use language to talk about their own environment affect the way outsiders will describe the race and language of the same environment, deciding where people create their own popular conceptions of these places of living. Community entrepreneurship influences these conceptions with individual and collective actions to stimulate a neighborhood identity. Within the scope of this case study, black entrepreneurs used strategic planning with everyday actions to change assumptions about black communities and enterprises, creating a whole new identity for Fort Greene. Over the course of thirty years, it moved from just some black ghetto to a cultural district in the heart of Brooklyn. What are these symbols these entrepreneurs manipulated? What is the sustainability of essentialized race thinking in neighborhood development?

Anderson, N. S., Busà, A., Brown, E., Candipan, J., Conn, P., Cordeau, R., … & Treskon, M. (2012). The world in Brooklyn: Gentrification, immigration, and ethnic politics in a global city. J. DeSena, & T. Shortell (Eds.). Lexington Books.

Global forces that influence social, political, economic, and demographic trends are worldwide, but also accurately represented in a small amount within Brooklyn, though this small amount contributes to these problems as a whole. The scholarly papers of World In Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City, contemplates Brooklyn as a small piece and reflection of these issues, written by scholars from different disciplines and universities that have all decided upon Brooklyn as the target of their research. With its reclamation of its stature as a highly coveted place to live, work, and have fun, Brooklyn has responded well to the interest of many. From being known as one of the “hippest” places in Brooklyn, to the legend that most family ties can be traced to Brooklyn, the urban dynamics of Brooklyn have come under study under the lens of its demographic, ethnographic, and comparative make up. These chapters investigate the issues of social class, urban development, immigration, race, ethnicity, and politics with first the context of Brooklyn, and secondly, its context globally.

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