Gündüz Arslan, S., Akpolat, N., Kama, J. D., Özer, T. and Hamamcı, O. (2008), One-year follow-up of the effect of fixed orthodontic treatment on colonization by oral candida. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, 37: 26–29. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00574.x

This article studies how colonization of the mouth by the bacteria Candida differs with the presence of braces. They found that the Candida is present in greater amount when braces are also present in the mouth. This article proves there is a need for a more effective tool for brushing one’s teeth with braces. Candia is a bacterium that can cause unsightly and uncomfortable fungal growth in the mouth.

Heintze, Siegward D., Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann, and Jannis Loundos. “Effectiveness of three different types of electric toothbrushes compared with a manual technique in orthodontic patients.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 110, no. 6 (1996): 630-38. doi:10.1016/s0889-5406(96)80040-0.

This article studied the effectiveness of electric toothbrush versus a regular toothbrush used by people with braces. It found that the mechanical toothbrush was more effective for people who in general have poor dental hygiene practices. This article has made me consider if creating an electrical design would be more effective.

Mills, Deborah. “Your role before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.” Orthodontic Products, March 1, 2007.

This article discusses the importance of hygiene practices while a person has braces. It includes a long procedure and several tools that people with braces should adhere to. This can be incorporated into my design by creating a double sided toothbrush where the other end is similar to the waterpik recommended in this article.