Science Forward Fall 2017

Dr. Edyta Greer, Macaulay Honors College, Fall 2017

Category: Bibliography (page 1 of 2)

Medicated Patches – Annotated Bibliography

Popular Article:

Silver, Larry, M.D. “A Parent’s Guide to the Daytrana Patch.” ADDitude. August 03, 2017. Accessed October 22, 2017.

This article takes about a patch that is applied to the skin, stays on all day, and delivers medication for ADHA in increments throughout the day. This has been done before with non-prescription different medications such as ibuprofin. However, it has not been done with a drug of this nature before. This patch helps children, who often have difficulty swallowing pills, get the medication they desperately need. With something like this possible, it is not that far off to think that a patch similar to this, that delivers insulin to diabetics can be accomplished.

Peer Reviewed Sources:

Ali, Fatima Ramzan et al. 2017. “Design, Development, and Optimization of Dexibuprofen Microemulsion Based Transdermal Reservoir Patches for Controlled Drug Delivery.”

This study speaks to the benefits and complications associated with transdermal drug delivery, specifically with ibuprofen. It talks about why transdermal delivery is effective, and how it works. They also mention that it is a method that is becoming increasingly popular, because in some cases people have difficulty swallowing large pills. Some of the complications include the skin’s natural chemical barriers that sometimes make it difficult for the drugs to get through to the bloodstream.


Moffatt, Kurtis, Yujing Wang, Thakur Raghu Raj Singh, and Ryan F Donnelly. 2017. “Microneedles for enhanced transdermal and intraocular drug delivery.” Current Opinion In Pharmacology 36, 14-21. MEDLINE Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed October 22, 2017).

In this study they experimented with using microneedles in transdermal patches. In doing this they eliminate some of the complications with some patches not being able to deliver an effective drug through the skin’s chemical barriers. These patches can be applied easily by a patient, and are effective almost immediately. Patches like this, that use microneedles, are not currently available on the market, but the studies being done on them are very promising so far. If this same delivery method can be used for insulin delivery diabetics will be able to get the medication they need much easier, and those who are unable to inject themselves with their insulin dosages will no longer need help getting the medication they need.

Pill Dissolver Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Peer Reviewed Article

Lopez, Felipe L, et al. “Formulation Approaches to Pediatric Oral Drug Delivery: Benefits and Limitations of Current Platforms.” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, Informa Healthcare, 2 Nov. 2015,

This discussed the importance for correct dosages especially for infants and children.  It’s necessary to take into account the processing and manufacturing of a device to more adequately deliver the correct dosages of medicine to pediatrics.  Some recent advances in the oral delivery system of medicine is the liquid dosage form and solid dosage form, with a device such as the “pill swallowing cup.”  This would be helpful in giving us ideas on how we should create an efficient pill swallower device by understanding the devices already out there in the market.


Peer Reviewed Article

Edelbi, R El, et al. “In Situ Coating Makes It Easier for Children to Swallow and Tolerate Tablets and Capsules.” Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), John Wiley and Sons Inc., 9 June 2015,

The authors discuss an in situ coating introduced by MedCoat.  Children especially have a hard time swallowing tablets and pills, so the purpose of the in situ coating is to disguise the unpleasant taste of the medicine.  The in situ coating is comprised of things like gelatin, sugar and maltitol syrup.  This can be helpful because it would give us different ideas on how to create our pill dissolver device and what would be effective and ineffective.


Reputable Source Article

Scott, Clare. “University of Michigan Adapts Electronics Manufacturing Technology to 3D Print Medicine.” 3DPrint.Com | The Voice of 3D Printing / Additive Manufacturing, 3DR Holdings LLC, 28 Sept. 2017,

The article talks about how 3D printing has the capabilities of printing out pills with the correct dosages in such a form as a dissolvable strip.  It goes through the process that the 3D printer goes through to print this kind of drug.  It highlights that this could make it much easier for patients and doctors to be administered with the right amount of doses for medicine.  This article is helpful because it shows how the 3D printing technology can make it easier for individuals to effectively take their medication, whether it be the right dosage or that it be ingested more easily.

Limb Splint Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography – Toe Splint


Borke, Jesse . “Broken toe – self-care.” MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Accessed October 19, 2017.


The MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia focuses mainly on broken toes. It goes into detail about the injury and what to expect and feel from the injury. They go on to tell you how long it will last and what are some symptom reliefs for it. One of the remedies provided is buddy wrapping. This is when you connect your inured toe to the adjacent toe using tape. This remedy gets annoying, unconfutable and doesn’t really prevent so much pain. This is why our group would like to use the toe splint. An easier and more convenient way.



Macmanus, Joseph E. “The use of a plaster slipper in the management of simple fractures of the toes.” The American Journal of Surgery 54, no. 3 (1941): 721-22.


Doctor Joseph Macmanus discusses a simple yet effective way to provide comfort and protection to a fractured toe. His remedy involves a plaster slipper. He describes how to wrap your foot and toe in plaster to keep it protected. It is like molding the plaster to your foot. This method while may be effective is also annoying to wear and hard to apply. The foot has to be bathed, dried and powdered. Measurements have to be taken and then plaster applied. The plaster is bulky and hard to wear with shoes. This is why our group would like to use the toe splint. An easier and more convenient way.



Singh, H.p., and N.d. Downing. “An “empty” toe.” The Foot 15, no. 2 (2005): 114-16.


Hp singh describes how a freak accident caused a patient to break her toe. Not only did it brake but it “went missing”. As to say the bone of the toe cam out of the toe skin socket and into a different skin socket. So one of the patients toe sockets was just empty skin without a bone. They did surgery on her and fixed her toe. She was then put in a plaster slipper. This is why our group would like to use the toe splint. An easier and more convenient way.

Annotated Bibliography

Pifer, G. 2000. “Casting and splinting: prevention of complications.” Topics In Emergency Medicine 22, no. 3: 48-54.  Accessed October 23, 2017.

In his article, “Casting and Splinting: Prevention of Complications,” Dr. Gerald Pifer, a professor of orthopaedics discusses the proper method of applying a cast or splint to an injured limb. This is a relatively short peer-reviewed article which includes the principles underlying the technical aspects of casting and splinting. Although Paul is already an expert at splinting, this article serves as a good source for Elina and I to understand the basics of splinting. This way, we can improve on the commonly used methods in our project.


Peck, Fh, Ae Roe, Cy Ng, C Duff, Da McGrouther, and Vc Lees. 2014. “The Manchester short splint: A change to splinting practice in the rehabilitation of zone II flexor tendon repairs.” Hand Therapy 19, no. 2: 47-53. Accessed October 23, 2017.

The second article I found, “The Manchester short splint: A change to splinting practice in the rehabilitation of zone II flexor tendon repairs,” is by authors FH Peck, AE Roe, CY Ng, C Duff, DA McGrouther and VC Lees (the article does not indicate their positions, although presumable they are experts in hand therapy because that’s the journal that published their work). They discuss the benefits of using a “Manchester short splint” which is not as long as the regular forearm splint for certain types of tendon repairs. The benefit of using a shorter splint is that the wrist is able to move, which enables joint extension and flexion. This is a useful article for our project because by examining the structural and functional benefits of alternative splinting methods, proven to be safe, we may be able to adapt those methods in our design.


Gilbert, Robin. “What Are the Different Types of Splints?” LIVESTRONG.COM. August 14, 2017. Accessed October 23, 2017.

On the health and fitness website, Robin Gilbert posted: “What are the Different Types of Splints?” This is a basic overview on what type of splint would be used in a particular injury; for example, soft splints are an effective quick method to support the injured limb and offer comfort. Understanding the major types of splints is key so that we know the injuries our project splint should be targeting.


Annotated Bibliography of Poster Presentation

1. Mintz, Suzanne Geffen. 2014. “The Double Helix: When The System Fails The Intertwined Needs Of Caregiver And Patient.” Health Affairs 33, no. 9: 1689-1692. (accessed October 16, 2017).

Suzanne Mintz is a family caregiver and she co-founded the Family Caregivers Association.  This peer-reviewed article discusses Suzanne’s struggle after breaking her toe and how the break negatively affected her ability to work.  She talked about how she felt as though her doctor was not able to provide her with much help.  She felt as though there was not much she could do about her unfortunate situation.  This source is helpful in recognizing that there is a problem with how broken toes are treated and that a solution must be found.


2.  Richards, John W., and David Govaker. 1996. “Alternative Buddy-Taping for a Broken Toe.”   Journal Of Family Practice 43, no. 6: 524. (accessed October 16, 2017).

John W. Richards and David Govaker are both writers for the Journal of Family Practice and are discussing a new method for treating a broken toe.  They are suggesting that the current method of taping a toe to a neighboring toe can actually be detrimental for the fracture and cause greater amounts of pain than the toe would feel without the tape.  This source is valuable for my project because it shows that there are clear issues with the current method of healing broken toes and perhaps a new treatment could arise that will be better than the current one.


3. Roland, James. “Everything You Should Know About a Broken Toe.” Healthline. (December 09, 2016). Accessed October 16, 2017.

James Roland is a staff writer for Healthline who is discussing everything that goes into a broken toe.  He discusses all of the symptoms and treatments and talks about how there is not so much that a doctor can do about a broken toe.  He brought up the method of taping a toe to its neighbor as the primary treatment for a mild broken toe.  This article is helpful in showing that there really is only one common held method which is not the method that I am suggesting we create.  I believe that isolating the toe and placing it in a hard splint would be more beneficial for the healing process than taping the toe it to its neighbor and this article proves that my method has not been fully tried yet.

Pharmoris: Annotated Bibliography

Peer-Reviewed Sources: 


Powar, P. V., P. H. Sharma, and S. S. Sharma. 2014. “Pharmacosomes: A novel drug delivery system.” The Pharma Innovation Journal 3, no. 10 (November 30): 94-100. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi:10.22271/tpi.

  • This article was written by S. S. Sharma from the Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, as well as P. V. Powar and P. H. Sharma from the Department of Pharmaceuticals at the College of Pharmacy in India. This article provides important background information regarding the development of Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS); furthermore, the article outlines the various categories of NDDS and their respective medical applications. Relevant to our project, one of the categories discussed in detail is pharmacosomes (a type of liposomal drug delivery system). Specifically, the article explains the pharmacological features of pharmacosomes,  as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using them over other NDDS. For example, pharmacosomes are the preferable method of drug delivery because, through this method, the  drug is covalently linked; subsequently, loss due to leakage of drug, does not take place. Additionally, the article describes different methods for preparing pharmacosomes (e.g. injection method vs. hand-shaking method). This information is useful for our project because it aids in understanding how pharmacosomes function and provides evidence of their viability for the oral administration of anticancer drugs.


Khan, David R. 2010. “The Use of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy.” Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy 2, no. 3 (May 10): 58-62. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi:10.4172/1948-5956.1000024.

  • This peer-reviewed article was written by Dr. David R. Khan from the Department of Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics at West Texas A&M University and published in the Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy. This article outlines the use of nanocarriers (such as liposomes, pharmacosomes, etc.) for drug delivery in cancer therapy; more specifically, it discusses the advantages of nanocarriers and their propensity for success in targeted anticancer treatments, as well as addresses some of the obstacles associated with drug transfer to cancer cells, and achieving uniform drug distribution at the tumor site, amongst others. According to the article, two of the (arguably) most significant advantages of using nanocarriers for drug delivery are (1) they can improve the pharmacological properties of traditional chemotherapeutics, and (2) because of their small size, they are able to effectively deliver encapsulated anticancer drugs to tumor tissue–regardless of vascular defects commonly observed at tumor sites due to the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). This article will be a useful resource for our project because it offers an in-depth explanation of nanocarriers’ functions and provides relevant examples of completed clinical trials demonstrating the success of nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy.        

Popular Source: 


  1. “How New Cancer Treatments Are Shaping Lives.” The New York Times (May 15). Accessed October 22, 2017.
  • This online article published in The New York Times Magazine was not written by one individual; rather, it is comprised of condensed and edited responses from six New York Times readers detailing their personal experiences–good and bad–with new cancer treatments. The treatments mentioned in the article are as follows: crizotinib (an ALK inhibitor), PET scans to gauge individual responses to treatment, immunotherapy drugs, Atezolizumab (a monoclonal antibody), and olaparib (first PARP inhibitor approved for treatment of ovarian or breast cancer). While the article does not explicitly mention/ discuss liposomal drug delivery systems, it does well to show the many different kinds of therapies/ treatments that are being developed and used in the fight against cancer. Moreover, it highlights the difficulties patients often face when navigating and undergoing cancer treatment. This information could be used in our project as evidence of the need for new cancer treatments, especially treatments that are more targeted and less invasive.  

Annotated Bibliograpy

Gündüz Arslan, S., Akpolat, N., Kama, J. D., Özer, T. and Hamamcı, O. (2008), One-year follow-up of the effect of fixed orthodontic treatment on colonization by oral candida. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, 37: 26–29. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00574.x

This article studies how colonization of the mouth by the bacteria Candida differs with the presence of braces. They found that the Candida is present in greater amount when braces are also present in the mouth. This article proves there is a need for a more effective tool for brushing one’s teeth with braces. Candia is a bacterium that can cause unsightly and uncomfortable fungal growth in the mouth.

Heintze, Siegward D., Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann, and Jannis Loundos. “Effectiveness of three different types of electric toothbrushes compared with a manual technique in orthodontic patients.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 110, no. 6 (1996): 630-38. doi:10.1016/s0889-5406(96)80040-0.

This article studied the effectiveness of electric toothbrush versus a regular toothbrush used by people with braces. It found that the mechanical toothbrush was more effective for people who in general have poor dental hygiene practices. This article has made me consider if creating an electrical design would be more effective.

Mills, Deborah. “Your role before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.” Orthodontic Products, March 1, 2007.

This article discusses the importance of hygiene practices while a person has braces. It includes a long procedure and several tools that people with braces should adhere to. This can be incorporated into my design by creating a double sided toothbrush where the other end is similar to the waterpik recommended in this article.

Annotated Bibliography – Pill Dissolver

Academic Source 1:

Preis, Maren. 2015. “Orally Disintegrating Films and Mini-Tablets—Innovative Dosage Forms of Choice for Pediatric Use.” AAPS PharmSciTech 16, no. 2 (March 5): 234-241. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi: 10.1208/s12249-015-0313-1

This article was published in Volume 16, issue no. 2 of AAPS PharmSciTech, the peer-reviewed online journal of The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. The journal publishes pharmaceutical news related to the research, development and evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms and delivery systems.

The text initially provides background on oral administration of medication, stating that it has long been preferred because it is non-invasive. The article then proceeds to discuss new research conducted for the development of new forms of pediatric medicines, while stating that the findings can be widely interpreted. The research referenced in this article mentions that increasing usage of orally disintegrating films and tablets, especially small-sized tablets may be appropriate for the administration of pediatric medicine, pending licensing and approval. Overall, enhancements to the administration of pediatric medicine are necessary, but only if they are subject to proper regulation and review.


Academic Source 2:

van Riet-Nales, Diana, Alfred F A M Schobben, Herman Vromans, Toine C G Egberts, Carin M A Rademakers. 2016. “Safe and effective pharmacotherapy in infants and preschool children: importance of formulation aspects.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 101. no. 7 (March 15): 662-669. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308227

This article was published in Volume 101, issue no. 7 of Archives of Disease in Childhood, an international peer review journal that aims to inform pediatricians about various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diseases.

The text discusses the current methods of oral ingestion of medication for newborns and infants, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. One trend the article points out is that there has been a general increase in the attention that is paid to the specific form that pediatric medication takes. Moreover, the older a child gets, the more tolerant that child becomes to larger tablets meant to dissolve in the stomach rather than the mouth. The study also found that there is evidence to suggest that children prefer mini-tablets rather than a powder, suspension or syrup. Lastly, the article discusses the potential for the administration of medicine through orodispersible films – a tablet designed to disintegrate in the patient’s mouth.


Popular Source:

Gray, Richard. 2014. “Just a spoonful of water: doctors find best method for swallowing pills.” The Guardian. November 10. Accessed October 22, 2017.

This article was written in 2014 by Richard Gray, a science journalist with 15 years of experience writing about various topics in the field. He studied biochemistry at the University of Edinburgh prior to being a journalist.

Gray’s article discusses the results of a series of tests taken with a sample size of 143 patients taking 283 pills. As background, the article mentioned two key figures; namely, that one in three people have difficulty swallowing oral medication, and that 10% of patients with swallowing difficulties cite this as a reason for not taking prescribed medication at all. Gray outlines the procedure of the study, and then proceeds to outline the two techniques that patients were asked to use to swallowing traditional medicine capsules: the “pop bottle method” and “lean forward method.” The study found that these techniques resulted in more pills successfully swallowed.

Annotated Bibliography

Peer Reviewed



Zylberberg Claudia, Sandro Matosevic. 2016. “Pharmaceutical liposomal drug delivery: a review of new delivery systems and a look at the regulatory landscape” Drug Delivery Vo 23, Issue 9 (May 05):  

This article is originally posted online on Taylor and Francis Online onto a journal specializing in drug delivery work. It is written by Claudia Zylberberg and Sandro Matosevic. Zylberberg is founder and CEO of Akron Biotechnology, and innovative business that researches cell and gene therapy. Matosevic is one of the lead scientists hired in her impressive startup. The authors discuss liposomal drug delivery systems, it’s disadvantages, and alternatives with better results. In our project I would focus on the articles discussion on pharmacosomes, which is a small portion on page 3323, although it focus only on in vitro studies.



Pandita Archana, Pooja Sharma. 2013. “Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs” International Scholarly Research Notices Vo 2013 (August 01):

This is posted on the International Scholarly Research Notices, a peer reviewed open access journal. It is funded by the Nanomedical Research Centre, College of Pharmacy in India. The article focuses on pharmacosomes and their potential as a novel drug delivery system. We can use this article in defining the need for this innovation and explaining the advantages in studying pharmacosomes. It also specifies applications of pharmacosomes in a simple, bulleted format, which makes it accessible and easy to understand.

Popular Source



  1. “Drug Delivery Systems: Getting Drugs to Their Targets in a Controlled Manner” U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (October).

This article is posted by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) so the bulk of the information is based on current research being done by NIBIB scientists. The article answers four questions: What are drug delivery systems? How are drug delivery systems used in current medical practice? What technologies are NIBIB-funded researchers developing for drug delivery? What are some important areas for future research in drug delivery systems? This article helped me understand basic definitions of drugs delivery systems and their relation in helping treat targeted cells, especially in the case of cancer.

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