Author Archives: Hye Min Lee

Posts by Hye Min Lee

Memo 3: Annotated Bibliography

Hyemin Lee
Professor MacBride
IDC 4001H
Annotated Bibliography
Due: April 15, 2013

1. Rosenberg, Tina. “Green Roofs in Big Cities Bring Relief From Above.” The New York Times, May 23, 2012. Accessed March 18, 2013.

Summary: This New York Times article talks about three ways green roofs can help solve environmental problems in big cities, urban heat island effect being one of them. Big cities lack green space due to buildings and “dark surfaces” tightly filling them. This lack causes temperatures in the city to be higher than that of its surrounding areas. The article gives New York City as an example of a city facing this environmental challenge with temperatures that are 7 degrees higher than that of its neighboring areas. It then gives an example of City Hall and how the surface temperature dropped from 169 degrees to as low as 91 degrees from replacing its black tar roof with a green roof full of plants and grass. Another argument presented in the article is the study done by Columbia University and City University of New York, where they found that green roof decreases the “rate of heat gained through the roof in summer by 84%” and “rate of heat loss in winter by 34%.”

Rationale: Data presented in this article on positive effects of green roofs in big cities are exactly what I need to support the final argument I will be making in my research paper: that green roofs are an effective way of mitigating the urban heat island effect. Data I’ve mentioned in the paragraph above as presented in this article are all important to show that green roofs are proven to indeed lower temperature in the summer and retain more heat in the winter. Another thing I really like about the article is that it focuses specifically on New York City a couple of times. With this article, I will be able to make the point that even something as small as changing the color of the roof from black to white can bring about major environmental benefits to the city. It’s important for the city to plan and build wisely because the changing climates are real and a lot more threatening than we believe.

2. Rosenzweig, Cynthia, Gaffin, Stuart, and Parshall, Lily. “Green Roofs in the New York Metropolitan Region.” Accessed February 19, 2013.

Summary: This research report has so much information but once again I will focus on the urban island heat effect in cities. It talks about several types of green roof systems with different layers, vegetation as well as membrane that can be modified and built for the particular goal of the builder. It also mentions that the weight of green roofs can vary as well as the type of plants, grass, flowers, and trees to be planted on the roof. It all really depends on what you want as the builder and allows flexibility in terms of cost. Reduction of temperature will, of course, vary depending on the roof surface chosen. By shading, green roofs reduce heat entering the building itself and consequently help reduce energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption. This research paper also argues that green roofs are more effective in heat reduction in long term than white roofs. Though the cost may be higher, green roofs do not require the “burdensome maintenance” of cleaning that white roofs require since much maintenance of them are done naturally. Also, green roof’s cooling effect does not diminish long-term as white roofs do.

Rationale:  Other than exploring how affective green roofs are, included in my proposal is another question I wanted to examine: how practical would it be to plant green roofs citywide taking the cost, long-term maintenance, and safety into consideration? This report will shed some light onto this part of my research. Though at first green roofs may seem expensive to install compared to regular roofs with no environmental benefits, their long-term benefits far outweigh the cost of installation. Projecting into the future, green roofs reduction of heat absorbed indoors will save incredible amounts of energy used on air conditioning in the summer and heating in the winter. In terms of maintenance of green roofs for the purpose of cooling, I would argue that maintaining them might even be a pleasant and enjoyable activity for those who are responsible.

3. Bass, Brad. “Mitigrating the Urban Heat Island with Green Roof Infrastructure” Accessed February 19, 2013.

Summary: This paper tests green roof infrastructure in relation to already existing grassland and how it can further reduce the urban heat island in the City of Toronto. Temperatures of the road are above 50 degrees Celsius while those of forest, grassland, and shelter wood are 20 degrees lower to about 30 degrees Celsius. This demonstrates that urban forestry strategy is effective in keeping the city a lot cooler. Grass at ground level when irrigated cooled the lower boundary layer of the city by 1-1.5 degrees Celsius. While that’s already quite significant, experiment further indicated that vegetation on roofs intensified the cooling effect of the existing grass on the ground by as much as 2 degrees Celsius. Areas being cooled also expanded when green roofs were irrigated. Green roof cooling is more effective in high-density areas, commercial and residential areas. Combined with existing green areas of the city, significant cooling was observed with green roofs.

Rationale: What’s presented in the paper is incredibly interesting. Returning to the very cause of rising temperatures in cities is the replacement of natural landscapes with heat absorbing materials in buildings and on roads. By restoring some green on ground level itself cools the city by a notable degree. Green roofs essentially are grassland that has been elevated to one of the warmest parts of the city: roofs. And it does wonders in reducing heat in urban areas as well. I intend to use this study to argue that green roof infrastructure can produce greater heat reducing effects when combined with existing urban forestry on ground level. It is not limited to work independently. Increasing grass and green spaces in general on ground level while expanding green roofs can significantly cool a much larger area than each can on its own. As I am focusing my research on big cities, particularly on New York City, it is also important to note that green roof especially extend and intensify its cooling effect in high-density areas.

4. Rosenzweig, Cynthia, Solecki, William D., and Slosberg, Ronald B. “Mitigrating New York City’s Heat Island with Urban Forestry, Living Roofs, and Light Surfaces.” Accessed February 19, 2013.

Summary: Urban heat island mitigation strategies include urban forestry, green roofs and light colored surfaces. Among the three, green roof as an individual strategy has the greatest effect on the reducing the temperature of the city. In New York City, combination of green roofs and planting trees will yield optimal result in heat reduction. New York City was broken down into seven areas: New York City, Mid-Manhattan West, Lower Manhattan East, Fordham Bronx, Maspeth Queens, Crown Heights Brooklyn, and Ocean Parkway Brooklyn. Average cooling by green roofs for each area at 3 PM was 0.5, 1, 0.9, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively. (These numbers assume that all of available area is redeveloped to green roofs) Mid-Manhattan has highest average cooling degree followed by Lower Manhattan East. This is explained by the fact that these areas have the most flat roof space, 33.8% in the first and 26.6% in latter. Installing green roofs across Brooklyn will also be effective in reducing the temperature of the area as a whole.

Rationale: This report is extremely useful for my paper because it clearly observes the different areas of New York City and how effective green roof infrastructure would be in each. Depending on the area available for flat roofs mitigation of the urban heat island effect varies. Understanding the area can help better prepare and make policies in installation of green roofs and ultimately in the development of heat island mitigation.


5. U.S. Department of Buildings, “NYC Green Roof Property Tax Abatement Program.” January 2010. Accessed March 17, 2013.

Summary: Summary of this document should be very straightforward since it is just a list of benefits, requirements on tax abatement. NYC Green Roof Property Tax Abatement Program is established to encourage environmentally friendly buildings. Benefits of a one-year Tax Abatement include $4.5 per square foot of green roof and as much as $100,000. There are nine requirements for a green roof to qualify for an abatement including a drainage layer, insulation layer, weatherproof roofing membrane, root barrier layer, insulation layer, growth medium, maintenance plan, and a vegetation layer. This program is the city’s effort to encourage building owners to install green roofs to mitigate the increasing temperature in urban areas.

Rationale:This is a valuable source for my paper because it shows that the government is actively supporting and encouraging more establishment of green roofs by providing financial incentives for building owners to build them. The mitigating effects of green roofs would only be lastingly effective if it happens in large areas of the city, not just some. The nature of this strategy requires as many areas to be covered with vegetation whether it be grass, flowers, or trees. This is the perfect way to advocate that and allow everyone to actively participate in helping solve the serious environmental problems causing discomfort to most but life threatening to some who can be fatally affected by heat.

6. U.S. Department of Design & Construction. “DDC Cool & Green Roofing Manual.” Accessed March 18, 2013.

Summary: This reports examines the cost of green roofs across NYC. There is about 11.5% roof area in NYC, which is about 944,300,000 square feet. New York City has a great potential for green roofs to benefit not only the buildings they’re placed on top of but the city as a whole. If half the roofs in New York City were covered in green, we’ll be able to reduce the urban heat island effect by almost as much as 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Average cost of extensive green roofs is estimated to about $10 per square feet. Greening half of the city would cost about $4.72 billion since there are about 944 million square feet available roof space. Energy usage will decline by an estimated amount of $98.4 million and a total of $149.4 million will be saved annually if half the city installed green roofs. In desiring low maintenance of green roofs, one should consider plant species, initial spacing, plant propagule, soil medium death and pre-grown trays or mats.

Rationale: No matter how excellent a strategy is, if it’s not obtainable it is fair to say that such a strategy is not an effective one to discuss. Though the cost of replacing half of NYC’s black roofs with green is not to be underestimated, such a goal is reachable and the lasting environmental benefits of it are worth the investment in the long-term. This source also emphasizes the main point I will argue in my final paper that green roof is indeed effective in reducing heat in urban areas. More green, the better and more green equals more cooling. Proper planning of green roof installation can also help keep maintenance of it low and easier.



History of Green Roofs & the Urban Heat Island Effect


1810s: A chemist from Britain Luke Howard, discovers the urban heat island effect as he observed the difference in temperatures from London and rural areas near it. He concludes that crowded population and structure of the buildings retained more heat in the city. Howard, however, is not the only person who explored this phenomenon.  (Mills)

1931: United States’ first modern green roof is installed in Rockefeller Center, New York. It is now naturally the oldest commercial building with green roof in America. Developed and built by John R. Todd and Raymond Hood respectively, the Center has a total of five roof gardens that add beautiful greenspace in Midtown Manhattan but also effectively mitigates the city’s heat island effect. (Magill & Midden & Groninger & Therrell)

1961: Reinhard Bornkamm is a researcher at Berlin’s Free University who is internationally known to be the father of modern green roofs. He published his work on green roofs in Germany and marked the beginning of increased further green technology research. Green roofs began to gain attention and popularity throughout Europe. (Metropolismagazine)

1970: GENO Haus is a government sponsored green roof built in Germany that remained functional until 1990. It was made of a Styrofoam base. It is not a surprise it was made in Germany considering that Germany is a leading adapter of green infrastructure. (Metropolismagazine)

1971: Gerda Gollwitzer and Werner Wirsing, early pioneers of green roof technology published Roof Areas Inhabited, Viable and Covered by Vegetation. It outlined the modern green-roof concept. (Solomon)

1975: The German Landscape Research, Development & Construction Society is founded. It “established widely followed green-roof standards” and has remained the basic tool for reliable green roof construction for many years. (Metropolismagazine & Philippi)

1986: Friedensreich Hundertwasser builds a colorful apartment house in Vienna, Austria that has grass, plants, flowers and trees covering its roof as well as its sides and balconies. Some green roofs resemble a forest and interestingly, in one of them, compose toliets from its residents fertilizes the green roof. His green infrastructures are recognized as landmarks, supporting the argument that people find greenspaces esthetically pleasing. (Metropolismagazine)

1989: By the end of 1980s, one million square meters of green roofs are installed in Germany. (Magill & Midden & Groninger & Therrell)

1993: In Dietikon, Switzerland, architect Peter Vetsch builds nine concrete residential homes “buried in earth and grass.” Grass covers the homes entirely except for the entrances. Some home roof tops are used as gardens while others simply as sitting areas. (Metropolismagazine &

1995: Emilio Ambasz, an Argentine born US architect, “transposes a 100,000 square foot park in the city center onto 15 terraces of a new government building” in Fukuoka Japan. The staircase-shaped rooftop garden is a beautiful juxtaposition of nature and the city. (Metropolismagazine)

1995: 700 people in Chicago died from a heat-wave; displayed the seriousness of urban heat. (NYC Department of Design & Construction)

1996: By the end of 1990s, ten million square meters of green roofs are installed in Germany because of government policy and state legislation that encourage eco-friendly green infrastructure. (Magill & Midden & Groninger & Therrell)

1997: William McDonough creates Gap Headquarters in San Bruno, California. It includes a 69,000 square-foot green roof. (Metropolismagazine)

1998: Impressed by green roofs in Germany, Mayor Richard M. Daley “directs municipal funds toward green-roof development” in Chicago, US. (Metropolismagazine)

1998: In Washington, D.C., “the U.S. Green Building Council created the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design rating system: green roofs can contribute toward up to six points on the 69-point system.” (Metropolismagazine)

1999: In Toronto, Canada, Steven W. Peck forms Green Roofs for Healthy Cities designed to promote the application of green roofs in North America by public and private organizations. (Solomon)

2000: June 29: Study showed 5C to 2C decrease in temperature from green roof infrastructure in Toronto. (Bass)

2001: “William McDonough and landscape architects Conservation Design Forum install the country’s first municipal green roof on Chicago’s City hall.” Greatly effective for lowering the city’s overall temperature, 7 degrees lower on average and 30 degrees lower in the summer compared to its neighboring roofs. (Metropolismagazine &

2002: The final report of New York City Regional Heat Island Initiative included test results demonstrating green roofs, a heat island mitigation strategy, directly lowering surface temperatures of the buildings in NYC. (NYSERDA)

2003: In New York, Rafael Pelli and Diana Balmori designed the first green residential building in North America named the Solaire, which includes two green roofs. (Metropolicmagazine)

2003: Total of 35,000 people, 14,000 in France alone, died from the European heat wave in August. (NYC Department of Design & Construction)

2004: Millennium Park in Chicago is the largest green rooftop garden in the world. “The park extends 24.5 acres over underground parking garages.” (Metropolismagazine)

2006: Research has shown that “green roof infrastructure could reduce average surface temperatures in New York City by as much as 1.4F (0.8C) if 50% of the city’s flat roofs are greened.” (Gaffin & Parshall)

2008: “Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park, New York is the first Platinum LEED high-rise office building will include a 4,500 square foot green roof on a connecting building.” This green roof reduces the urban heat island effect in New York City. (Metropolismagazine)

2008: November: A 950 square foot roof on a residential house in Brooklyn Heights, NY was completed. (New York Green Roofs)

2008: June: Staircase-style green roof for a commercial building in Midtown Manhattan that is 10,900 square foot big was completed; built mostly for esthetic purposes.

2008: A 400 square foot green roof atop a residential building in Brooklyn Heights, NY was completed. (New York Green Roofs)

2009: In Lower East side of Manhattan lays a 2,950 square foot green roof and this “commercial residence project features a prevegetated extensive green roof system installed within an abstract paving grid to create a striking contemporary design.” (New York Green Roofs)

2009: November: Green roof on one of Columbia University’s residential buildings in the Upper West Side was completed. It is 11,600 square foot with vegetated green roof mats. (New York Green Roofs)

2010: Mayor Bloomberg announced his PlaNYC initiative to increase green roofs in New York City to decrease storm water runoff and meet the plan’s goal of making “90 percent of City waterways suitable for recreation” by reducing storm water overflow with green technologies. (PlaNYC)

2010: November: One of the biggest green roofs in New York City. 19,000 square foot green roof was completed on top of Beth Israel Hospital near Union Square. This green space is exclusive and only accessible to “tenants of four surrounding residential towers”. Its deep soil is effective for mitigating storm water runoff, a problem the city needs to address. (New York Green Roofs)

2010: NYC Green Roof Property Tax Abatement Program is established to encourage environmentally friendly buildings. Benefits of a one-year Tax Abatement include $4.5 per square foot of green roof and as much as $100,000. There are nine requirements for a green roof to qualify for an abatement including a drainage layer, insulation layer, and a vegetation layer. This program is the city’s effort to encourage building owners to install green roofs to mitigate the increasing temperature in urban areas. ( & Rosenberg)

2011: September: A small project for residents in the Hell’s Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan was completed. Only about 150 square foot built for “mental well-being” of the people. (New York Green Roofs)

2011: November: Installation for green roof on top of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden’s new Visitor Center was completed. (New York Green Roofs)

2012: New roof top outdoor venue was created for Brooklyn Academy of Music located in Brooklyn, NY. (New York Green Roofs)

2012: May: A green roof project in Midtown. It is about 7,000 square foot big and truly a beautiful combination of grass and flowers right next to the living room’s door. Also decorated with comfortable chairs and small tables. (New York Green Roofs)


1. Rosenberg, Tina. “Green Roofs in Big Cities Bring Relief From Above.” The New York Times. 23 May 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2013 <>

2. “NYC Green Roof Property Tax Abatement Program.” Jan. 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2013.<>.

3. Mills, Gerald. “Luke Howard and the Climate of London.” RMetS 63.6 (2008): 153-57. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <;jsessionid=218882249241785F150BE7135F815EBA.d04t01?v=1&t=hefzrwjn&s=01196a83d750a5789d0816f3f1cbf28abf08c143>.

4. Magill, John D.; Midden, Karen; Groninger, John; and Therrell, Matthew, “A History and Definition of Green Roof Technology with Recommendations for Future Research” (2011).Research Papers.Paper 91.

5. Bass, Brad. “Mitigrating the Urban Heat Island with Green Roof Infrastructure” Accessed February 19, 2013.

6. Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Gaffin, Stuart; Parshall, Lily. “Green Roofs in the New York Metropolitan Region” Accessed February 19, 2013.

7. Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William; Parshall, Lily; Gaffin, Stuart; Lynn, Barry; Goldberg, Richard’ Cox, Jennifer; Hodges, Sara. “Mitigrating New York City’s Heat Island with Urban Forestry, Living Roofs, and Light Surfaces” Accessed February 19, 2013.

8. Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Slosberg, Ronald B. “Mitigrating New York City’s Heat Island with Urban Forestry, Living Roofs, and Light Surfaces” Accessed February 19, 2013.

9. Solomon, Nancy B. “Vegitation Systems Atop Buildings Yield Multiple Environmental Benefits.” Web. 19 Mar. 2013. <>.

10. Philippi, Peter M. “Introduction to the German FLL-Guideline for the Planning, Execution and Upkeep of Green-roof Sites.” Web. 18 Mar. 2013. <>

11. “New York Green Roofs- Projects.” New York Green Roofs. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. <>

12. “DDC Cool & Green Roofing Manual.” New York City Department of Design & Construction, Web. 18 Mar. 2013. <>.



Intelligence Explosion:Evidence and Import talks about the opportunities and risks of superhuman artificial intelligence. It argues that “with more intelligence we can hope for quicker, better solutions to many of our problems.” Some opportunities include finding a cure for cancer and achieving economic stability. But one serious risk that AI may pose is the risk of human extinction. Therefore, it’s crucial to have a controlled AI “specially programmed to preserve what humans value.” Simply, an AI that will not take us over.

Creating superhuman AI that’ll exceed the intelligence of humans is very interesting. Can a creation be superior to its creator? How do you envision a world governed and led by AI? Do you imagine an even higher power technology than AI? Would we be happier people with the creation of AI? Technology has advanced incredibly over the last few decades but we can’t argue that people are happier now than before. The things that make us feel most alive, I believe, such as love and good company aren’t much related to how great our technology is. Are we setting ourselves up for destruction by creating AI?

Will the creation of AI bring quicker and better solutions to problems NYC is facing with climate changes? Instead of taking decades to build a storm barrier as mentioned in the Battered NYC article or instead of having a list of recommendations for greening the MTA, will AI be able to provide us with THE solutions?

Memo 1: Green Roofs against Climate Change

To: Professor MacBride

From: Hye Min Lee

Date: February 13, 2013

Re: Research Paper Topic Proposal- Green Roof as NYC’s Adaptation to Climate Change in the Future

Topic I will be researching is green infrastructure, specifically green roofs in New York City buildings as a way of mitigating the effects of climate change in the future. I will be focusing on one effect in particular: urban heat island.

One of the major growing environmental concerns is the global temperature rise. This gradual rise in temperature especially affects urban areas like New York City, simply because there are a lot more activities going on, crowded with buildings and people. Observations have shown that temperatures in cities are higher than that of their surrounding areas, which is more commonly referred to as the urban heat island effect. I will be researching, examining, and questioning how affective green roofs would be in reducing temperature while bringing more nature into the city in the years to come. How practical would it be to plant green roofs citywide taking the cost, long-term maintenance, and safety into consideration?

I have begun my basic general search via Google. I want to first gain a greater understanding of how rapidly temperatures are rising and the gravity of the detrimental effects of the changing climates. I will be looking at several New York Times articles as well as research papers related to green roofs. Germany is one of the leaders in the world’s green roof industry so I will also be looking into their system, any difficulties, improvements its cities have experienced after green roof installation. I will also be looking at growing green roofs right here in the United States including Chicago and Washington, D.C. Mayor Bloomberg is a strong advocate of this kind of infrastructure and several green roof legislation and tax incentives have been put into place to encourage more green so I will be researching those as well.

Climate Change: Why Do American’s Ignore it?

Hortong talks in detail about climate change in New York City including extreme heat waves and temperature. There are plenty of evidence of the climate change and much research being done to project and predict the extent of its possible effects. The problems of it are something Norgaard agrees with and argues need immediate action.

Norgaard talks about various factors contributing to American’s apathy and public silence in regards to climate change: strong individualism, fear, hopelessness, and guilt, lack of trust and participation in politics, and others. Which of the factors Norgaard talks about do you agree with/relate to the most, if any? As a college student, what are some things that can be done to make climate change become visible in “daily lives and in government planning” and allow more Americans to become more active in this matter?


Comments by Hye Min Lee

"It would be too quick and pessimistic for anyone to believe that the Lightstone Group is setting themselves up for failure. It is a new idea and a new development they are trying to implement near the waterfront but I believe with adequate planning and designing it will be okay when another storm hits the East Coast. As everyone mentioned above, the Lightstone Group must be meticulous and impeccable in developing its residential areas because we are talking about 1,000 people's lives and property at risk if the design fails to adapt to the climate changes. Michelle brings up a very interesting point that though surrounded by water, Governor's Island survived Sandy. This goes to prove that what's really important is not the amount of water surrounding the space but the infrastructure of the building that will determine how much damage is allowed by extreme weather events. Looking at the bigger picture, this project hopefully will bring about improvements and solutions to the city's stormwater runoff problems in the long run."
--( posted on Mar 11, 2013, commenting on the post Lightstone: Smart planning or ignorant planning? )
"As clearly illustrated by the "Sandy Who?" article and as you've correctly stated, developers are not willing to walk away from constructing residential and commercial spaces near the waterfront. Livingstone Group is working on a huge project that will invite over 1,000 residents to live by the Gowanus Canal. Estate 4 founded by Alessandro Cajrati Crivelli plans to renovate a six-story building and a 130,000-square-foot factory into condos, retail shops, art studios and exhibition spaces. Both locations have been damaged by the recent hurricane and continue to be at risk of damage by other storms that will most likely hit the East Coast in the future. I'm assuming that the developers are developing despite the massive opposition and concerns about the construction of such projects because there is a demand for such spaces, people who are willing to occupy them. There really is something attractive about being by the waters. In response to the concerns expressed by Councilman Lander Geto, a spokesman for Livingstone, stated the developer is more than aware of the risks and is designing a building which will be protected from flooding. A building that not only meets the FEMA standards but exceeds them. Crivelli's response is also very similar to that of Geto's. Their flood plain line is designed with in mind storms that are more devastating than Sandy. I believe Lightstone and Estate 4's "invulnerable" projects of building on a waterfront is an example of an avant-garde construction technique rather than projects that have failed to understand past failures Sandy has made evident. First, because the developers are not blind to the risks these projects carry. Their designs are based not only on the storms in the past but projections of the climate changes in the future. Second, I believe it's better to develop with some risks than to not develop at all. These changes in the climate, extreme events will continue to happen and we can't always take "don't develop" as a solution. As the report by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection suggests, it's crucial to study "innovative approaches" and "alternatives to conventional structural solutions" to flooding. I do believe however that the planning and designing of these projects must be done with extreme care and detail, based on accurate research and data to ensure the safety of the residents and property."
--( posted on Mar 10, 2013, commenting on the post The future of architecture or stubbornness? )
"Sanderson's Mannahatta Project stems from the understanding that even in the most populated cities, nature exists and more measures can be done to encourage "some of nature's diversity" to return to the place they were pushed away from. It's primary desire is to build a new way of life that allows us, the people, to live in harmony with nature and ecology. It also explores the city's cultural diversity, economic wealth, and the enormous changes the city has undergone. Jacobs organized complexity is a bit different from the Mannahatta Project in that it focuses less on the ecological aspect of city planning. It's primarily concerned with city neighborhoods and "social and economic vitality in cities (4).""
--( posted on Feb 5, 2013, commenting on the post Week 2: Engage )
"PlaNYC focuses on climate changes, parks, housing and many other aspects of the city. Jane Jacobs would consider these projects in regards to city planning to improve New York City as successful. She would especially be an advocate for adding more green to the neighborhoods and though not mentioned in the article by Rosensweig, part of PlaNYC's desire is to make parks more accesible to all New Yorkers. Specifically for every New Yorker to live 10 minutes walking distance away from a park. Jacobs would probably be concerned though as she demonstrated with the residents of the New York's East Harlem, with only focusing on how the city looks while neglecting how it really works in real life. And learning from the lawn in front of the housing project basically became a "mask of pretended order, achieved by ignoring or suppressing the real order that is struggling to exist and to be served (15)", developments of the PlaNYC must watch out for those mistakes as well."
--( posted on Feb 4, 2013, commenting on the post week 2 – Engage )
"I mean for sure we would have to wait and see if Mayor Bloomberg's programs such as PlaNYC and the New York Climate Change Adaptation Task Force would be THE "sustainable solution" for the city's efforts to adapt to the climate extremes the city has experienced in recent years, but they do not, as everyone mentioned above, seek to be a "temporary patch". All of his programs are long-term that looks far into the future of the city as it adapts to the predicted climate changes. Scientists and experts of the New York Climate Change especially perform extensive scientific research and strive to understand the environment and how the city really works not just how it looks, which is a point Jacob emphasized as important again and again in his introduction. Rosensweig also mentions that the New York Climate Change has already made predictions of the city's future flood zones by making projections that go as far as into the 2080s. His programs definitely seek to be effective for many years to come."
--( posted on Feb 4, 2013, commenting on the post Week 2: Engage )