General Research:




Other Monsters

General Research


Alexander, L.A. Fictional Worlds: Traditions In Narrative and the Age of Visual Culture. Vol. 1-4. Charleston: CreateSpace, 2013. Print. Pg 79-91.

Cabin in the Woods. Directed by Drew Goddard, screenplay by Joss Whedon and Drew Goddard, Lionsgate, 2012. Film.

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Directed by John S. Robertson, starring John Barrymore, Paramount Pictures, 1920. Film.

Dracula. Directed by Tod Browning, starring Bela Lugosi, Universal Pictures, 1931. Film.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Taboo.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. Updated 30 January 2009. Web.

Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics. Translated by A.A. Brill. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1918. Print.

Ostman, Bjorn. “Why is Cannibalism Taboo?” Pleitropy: Field of Science. 16 December 2008. Web.

Sophocles. Oedipus Rex. Translated by Ian Johnston. May 2015. Web.

Stefon, Matt and Yehudi A. Cohen. “Dietary Law.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. Updated 16 February 2016. Web.

Ventura, Michael. “Don’t Even Think About It.” Psychology Today. 1 January 1998, updated 9 June 2016. Web.

Innocent Protagonists

Shavit, Zohar. “The Concept of Childhood and Children’s Folktales: Test Case — ‘Little Red Riding Hood.'” The Classic Fairy Tales: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, 1999. Originally sourced from Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Folklore 4 (1983): 93-124. Print.


Bernheimer, Kate, editor. My Mother She Killed Me, My Father He Ate Me. New York: Penguin Books, 2010. Print.

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton/Bollingen Paperbacks, 1973. Print.

Cole, Joanna, editor. Best-Loved Folktales of the World. New York: Anchor Books, 1983. Print.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Hawthorne’s Short Stories. New York: Vintage Books Press, 1973. Print.

Hoffmann, E.T.A. Tales of Hoffmann. Translated by R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Penguin Books, 2004. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. The Uncanny. Translated by David McLintock. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. Print.

Le Fanu, J.S. Best Ghost Stories of J.S. Le Fanu. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1964. Print.

Oppenheimer, Paul. Evil and the Demonic: A New Theory of Monstrous Behavior. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Print.

Tatar, Maria, editor. The Classic Fairy Tales: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, 1999. Print.

Yolen, Jane, editor. Favorite Folktales from Around the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986. Print.

Zipes, Jack, translator and editor. The Complete First Edition; The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014. Print.


Salem Trip Reflections

—–. Haunted Footsteps Walking Tour. Web.

Bewitched. Created by Sol Saks, directed by William Asher, starring Elizabeth Montgomery, Screen Gems and Ashmont Productions, 1964. Television.

Chick, Jack. “Satan Comes to Salem.” Chick Publications. 2012. Web.

Fox, Kate. “2016 City Guide and Map: Salem, Massachusetts.” Destination Salem. Web.

Hocus Pocus. Directed by Kenny Ortega, Buena Vista Pictures, 1993. Film.

Houseman, Haley ED. “The Real Witches of Salem, Massachusetts.” Broadly. 2 March 2016. Web.

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. Updated 2016. Web.

Nightmare Productions LLC. Count Orlok’s Nightmare Gallery. Updated 2016. Web.

Paranorman. Directed by Sam Fell and Chris Butler, Laika and Focus Pictures, 2012. Film.

Peabody Essex Museum. “Stickwork: Patrick Dougherty.” Exhibitions: Peabody Essex Museum. 14 May 2015 to 31 March 2017. Web.

Roach, Marilynne K. Gallows and Graves: The Search to Locate the Death and Burial Sites of the People Executed for Witchcraft in 1692. Watertown: Sassafras Grove Press, 1997. Print.

Roach, Marilynne K. A Time Traveler’s Maps of the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Watertown: Sassafras Grove Press, 1991. Print.

Salem Award Foundation. The Salem Witch Trials Memorial. 2016. Web.

Further Reading:
Baker, Emerson W. A Storm of Witchcraft: The Salem Witch Trials and the American Experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print.

Conde, Maryse. I, Tituba. Translated by Richard Philcox. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1992. Print.

Mather, Cotton. On Witchcraft. Mineola: Dover Publications Inc., 2005. Print.

Reis, Elizabeth. Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. Print.

Roach, Marilynne K. The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-By-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2004. Print.

“Young Omaha Couple on Crystal Meth Lost in a Snowstorm Dies Despite 4 Hours of 911 Calls.” Youtube, uploaded by DiscordantMindless, 5 August 2012, Web.


The Werewolf/Vampire Dichotomy

District 9. Directed by Neill Blomkamp, TriStar Pictures, 2009. Film.

Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde. Directed by Roy Ward Baker, MGM-EMI, 1971. Film.

The Fly. Directed by Kurt Neumann, 20th Century Fox, 1958. Film.

Ginger Snaps. Directed by John Fawcett, Motion International, 2000. Film.

Godzilla. Directed by Ishiro Honda, Toho, 1954. Film.

The Hilarious House of Frightenstein. Created by Ted Barris and Ross Perigoe, starring Billy Van, CHCH-TV, 1971. Television.

Jekyll. Written by Steven Moffat, directed by Douglas Mackinnon and Matt Lipsey, starring James Nesbitt, Hartswood Films and Stagescreen Productions for BBC One, 2007. Television.

League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. Directed by Stephen Norrington, 20th Century Fox, 2003. Film.

Lee, Stan and Jack Kirby. The Incredible Hulk #1. New York: Marvel Comics, May 1962. Print.

Scooby Doo! and the Reluctant Werewolf. Directed by Ray Patterson, Hanna-Barbera, 1998. Animated Film.

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Norton Critical Editions. Edited by Katherine Lineham. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2003. Print.

Twilight. Directed by Catherine Hardwicke, Summit Entertainment, 2008. Film.

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. New York: Dover Publications, 1993. Print.


Beresford, Matthew. The White Devil: The Werewolf in European Culture. London: Reaktion Books, 2013. Print.


Blood Libel: The Anti-Semitic Root of Vampirism



(1) NKJV. Hebrews 6:4-6; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

(2) At what point was this publicly repudiated by the Catholic Church? October 28, 1965, in a document called Nostra Aetate, produced by Pope Paul VI.

(3) Harold of Glouchester, 1168.

(4) Robert of Bury, 1181.

(5) 1183.

(6) The 1190 Massacre of York resulted in the deaths of 150 Jews when they took shelter in a royal castle; some Jews chose to commit suicide rather than face the tortures of the mob.

(7) Note the dates; although this was nowhere near Easter, the rumor had diverged at this point.

(8) Interesting to note, while the foreigner, Outsider vampires feasted on the native women in an act of both corruption and invasion, temporarily analogous ‘native vampires’ attacked their own bloodlines first, turning on their immediate family for sustenance and infection. While Outsider vampires represented a ‘Yellow Peril’ of racial insecurity and conflicting nationalist identity, native vampires represented pseudo-incestuous abusive family ties, where the silent threat came from within.

(9) Specific laws forbade the perpetuation of debt or creation of interest on loans or labour in the Quran; the unfortunate propensity for Jews to take after banking and flourish monetarily only underscored class divisions.


Bennett, Gillian. Bodies: Sex, Violence, Disease, and Death in Contemporary Legend. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2005. Print. Pg 255.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Translated by Ronald L. Ecker and Eugene J. Crook. 2016. Web.

Holmes, Colin. “The Ritual Murder Accusation in Britain.” The Blood Libel Legend: A Casebook in Anti-Semitic Folklore. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. Print. Originally sourced from Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, July 1981: 265-288. Print.

Ivry, Benjamin. “Why the Blood Libel Won’t Die.” Forward: Culture. 7 September 2015. Web.

Marx, Karl. Grundrisse. Translated by Martin Nicolaus. Marxist Internet Archive, 2002. Web. Pg. 557.

Marx, Karl. On the Jewish Question. Translated, Proofed, and Corrected by Andy Blunden, Matthew Grant, and Matthew Carmody. Marxist Internet Archive, 2009. Web.

Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror. Directed by F.W. Murnau, Prana Film, 1922. Film.

Pope Paul VI. Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions: Nostra Aetate. 28 October 1965. Web.

Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. 1993. Web.

Thomas of Monmouth. The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich. Edited and Translated by Augustus Jessopp and Montague Rhodes James. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1896. Web.

Zanger, Jules. “A Sympathetic Vibration: Dracula and the Jews.” English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920. 34 (1991): 33-44. Print.

Further Reading:
O’Malley, Patrick. “The Blood of the Saints: Vampirism from Polidori to Stoker.” Catholicism, Sexual Deviance, and Victorian Gothic Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. 130-164. Print.

The Werewolf/Vampire Dichotomy

Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Created by Joss Whedon, Mutant Enemy Productions and 20th Century Fox Television, 1997. Television.

Dark Shadows. Created by Dan Curtis, starring Jonathan Frid, Dan Curtis Productions, Worldvision Distribution, and CBS Television Distribution, 1966. Television.

Dracula. Directed by Tod Browning, starring Bela Lugosi, Universal Pictures, 1931. Film.

The Hunger. Directed by Tony Scott, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1983. Film.

Interview with the Vampire. Directed by Neil Jordan, Warner Bros. Pictures, 1994. Film.

King, Stephen. ‘Salem’s Lot. New York: Anchor Books, 2011. Print.

The Munsters. Created by Allan Burns and Chris Hayward, starring Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, and Al Lewis, NBC Universal Television Distribution, 1964. Television.

Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror. Directed by F.W. Murnau, Prana Film, 1922. Film.

Rice, Anne. Interview with the Vampire. New York: Ballantine Books, 1991. Print.

True Blood. Created by Alan Ball, Warner Bros. Television and HBO Enterprises, 2008. Television.

Twilight. Directed by Catherine Hardwicke, Summit Entertainment, 2008.

Vampire Diaries. Developed by Kevin Williamson and Julie Plec, Warner Bros. Television Distribution, 2009. Television.


Barber, Paul. Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. Print.

Dresser, Norine. American Vampires: Fans, Victims, and Practitioners. New York: Vintage Books Press, 1990. Print.

Keats, John. “La Belle Dame Sans Merci.” The Poetical Works of John Keats, 1884. Updated 2016. Web.

Le Fanu, J.S. Carmilla. Project Gutenberg. Updated 2016. Web.

Lecouteux, Claude. The Secret History of Vampires: Their Multiple Forms and Hidden Purposes. Rochester: Inner Traditions, 2010. Print.

Manhke, Aaron. “They Made a Tonic.” Lore. from Lore, March 18, 2015. iTunes Store.

Sherman, Aubrey. Vampires: The Myths, Legends, and Lore. Avon: Adams Media, 2014. Print.

Stoker, Bram. “Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism.” Dracula. Second Edition. Edited by John Paul Riquelme. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016. Print. (Individual essays located therein will be cited separately to relevant posts.)

Other Monsters

Mahnke, Aaron. Lore. March 18, 2015 onward. iTunes Store.

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Second Norton Critical Edition. Edited by J. Paul Hunter. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2012. Text.