November 4, 2012, Sunday, 308


From The Peopling of New York City


Diana Haddad: Just to Fill You In...


My Life Until Now

Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, I attended Magen David Yeshivah Elementary School followed by Yeshivah of Flatbush High School. While in high school, I took part in many extra-curricular and community service activities. Some of these activities include: yearbook editor, softball team captain, charity commissioner, peer tutoring, Big Sister program and Masterpiece workshop. Following high school, I spent a year studying abroad at the Jerusalem College for Women in Israel. I am currently in the Macaulay Honors Program pursuing a major in psychology and a minor in either social welfare or classical cultures.

My Hobbies

I enjoy playing tennis and basketball, reading and skiing. In addition, I enjoy helping the developmentally disabled. In 2005, I participated in a program organized by the National Jewish Council for Disabilities where I traveled down the eastern coast of America over the course of the summer with disabled individuals. This past summer I volunteered at the Special Children's Center of Deal, NJ. It is most likely that I will pursue a career in either psychology, social work or special education.

Ideal Community

If I were to walk up and down my block, I could probably tell you who lives in each house, how many children they have (and their names) and whether or not they own a pet. No, I don’t live in some quiet village in the Midwest. Actually, I live right in the heart of Brooklyn, New York. Amidst the hustle and bustle of Brooklyn, there are individuals who choose to override the anonymity of life in New York and settle in smaller communities. Upon choosing a community in which to live, there are many factors one must consider. Each person has his or her own opinion as to what the ideal community is.

In my opinion, an ideal community is a place where friendship and amicability are the norm. Children can roam the streets freely while parents are worry-free. Doors can be left unlocked. Everyone knows each other. Everyone trusts each other. People’s homes, and hearts, are always open. The whole community shares in the happiness of a wedding and mourns a loss at a funeral. Churches, synagogues and mosques can be built on the same block without fear of racist and discriminatory attacks. A community center hosts events such as carnivals, tennis matches and cooking classes throughout the year. Moms discuss their daughters’ dance recitals and fathers recruit fans to attend their sons’ little league games. Most importantly, community members feel a sense of belonging.

A community is deemed a community based on its’ members. It is the responsibility of each and every one of us to establish our respective communities and help them develop into the ideal communities we envision. Be it through education or action, it is our duty to provide the best for the next generation and make the world a more pleasant place to live.

Movie Clip About Immigration

I chose to present a clip from “My Big Fat Greek Wedding” not only because it is one of my favorite movies, but also because it portrays the differences between those who immigrate to America themselves and those born to immigrant parents in America. Mr. Kostas Portokalos, a strong-minded Greek immigrant, was extremely proud of his heritage. His home resembled the Parthenon, his children learned Greek, and he maintained a strong connection to his traditions of old. However, his daughter Toula, who was raised in America, did not maintain such a strong connection to her culture. She fell in love with an American man named Ian Miller and wanted to marry him, albeit his “non-Greek status.” Toula represents the struggles faced by first generation Americans in their attempts to integrate into society without forfeiting their rich heritages.

In this particular clip, Mrs. Portokalos comforts Toula and explains to her that the Portokalos family immigrated to America solely for her and her siblings. They left Greece in order to enable their children to live their lives freely without people telling them what to do or how to live. This freedom hinted to by Mrs. Portokalos is one of the major “pull factors” that draws people to move to America. America, “the land of the free,” is a beacon of light for immigrants seeking to build promising lives for their themselves and for their children.

Neighborhood Statistics

I researched the zip code in which I live, 11230, and came up with interesting information. Since this zip code has a large Jewish population(view below:Map of Religion: Jewish) and many Jewish children attend yeshivahs, the number of students attending private schools is disproportionate to the number of New Yorkers attending private schools.

Private vs. public school enrollment:

Students in private schools in grades 1 to 8 (elementary and middle school): 5,419 Here: 48.9% New York: 14.0%

Students in private schools in grades 9 to 12 (high school): 2,424 Here: 42.5% New York: 13.2%

Students in private undergraduate colleges: 2,913 Here: 48.4% New York: 38.2%

Below is a pie chart representing the different races living in zip code 11230:

11230 Races.png

White population: 64,939

Black population: 7,346

American Indian population: 250

Asian population: 9,901

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population: 44

Some other race population: 3,365

Two or more races population: 3,088

The top map is a map of the streets of zip code 11230.

The bottom map is a map of Jewish residents of zip code 11230. The dark brown color indicates about 25%-31%.

11230 Map.jpg
11230 Religion.jpg

Estimated median house/condo value in 2005:

11230: $575,226

New York: $258,900

Charity contributions deductions:

11230: $10,609

New York: $4,439

Foreign born population: 42,074

This zip code: 47.3%

Whole state: 20.4%

Most common places of birth for foreign born population:

Ukraine: 16%

Russia: 14%

Pakistan: 9%

Haiti: 5%

China, excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan: 5%

Other Eastern Europe: 4%

Poland: 4%

For more information on zip code 11230 and interesting statistics please visit:

[11230 Zip Code Detailed Profile]

From There to Here

After our class discussion a few weeks ago, I discovered that my family came to America years before the families of my classmates. Since my family emigrated from Syria to America in the early 1900's, I don't have a personal immigration story. Rather, I will focus largely on the stories of my great and great great grandparents.


The Sephardic-Syrian Jewish community of Aleppo, Syria dates back to approximately 250 CE. The continuous Jewish presence in the city lasted until the end of the twentieth century, when most of the remaining Jews left the city. Throughout its long history, Aleppo represented one of the foremost urban centers of western Asia, owing largely to its strategic location on a commercial crossroad. The city was located on the main caravan routes connecting the eastern Mediterranean region and Europe. The Jewish community thrived both in affluence and religion in this illustrious city despite numerous persecutions by the Muslims.

Jewish Life in Aleppo

Education: The educational methods of Jews in Aleppo were similar to those of the Muslims. Muslims in Aleppo had no schools of secular education nor at the professional level. Therefore, very few Jews felt impelled to seek professional training. In order to reach the pinnacle of Jewish Aleppoan society, one would aspire to become a successful merchant, private banker, high placed rabbi or scholar. For such ends, little secular education was necessary. However, in order to communicate with Europeans, the Jews emphasized learning different languages (primarily French). Religious studies of the Torah were very important as well.

Cultural Life: European culture did not pervade Aleppo. Aleppo had no theaters, no lectures, no concerts of European music etc. The cultural activities were limited to Arabic singers and Arabic theatrical groups.

The Sabbath: Every Aleppoan Jewish household observed the Sabbath. Sabbath in the Jewish community meant an absolute cessation of work. Delicious traditional meals were served Friday evening and Sabbath day. The fresh bread from the Sabbath meals would then then be eaten throughout the week.

Outdoor Pleasures: An important form of entertainment in the spring and fall of the year was picnicking in the numerous "bassateen" (fruit orchards). Families would stroll under the trees and would eat, drink and enjoy family time together. Note: This focus on the importance of family has remained until today.

Abraham Sultan's father, Joseph Sultan, in Aleppo

Attire: The Muslim women in Aleppo wore dark dresses with hoods-scarves that covered their entire faces. Covering the entire faces was an exclusively Muslim custom. Jewish and Christian women worse conventional, simple dresses. Most men (Muslim, Jewish and Christian) wore an "imbaazz" or "yallak", a robe reaching the ankles. Most men also wore a fez, a flat topped conical head covering of red felt. The elite Jewish merchants and wealthy community members wore European suits. The image on the right is of my great great grandfather, Joseph Sultan, in Syria circa 1900. The image on the left is of a Syrian Jewish family in Aleppo circa 1890.

A Syrian Family in Aleppo

Why Did the Jews leave Aleppo?

The rate of Jewish emigration from Syria increased dramatically in 1907-1908 with the rise of the "Young Turks" movement. A group of Turkish army officers overthrew the Sultan, Abd-il Hamid. The new regime aimed to strengthen the Turkish empire by creating a larger and stronger army. As a result, customary exemption of Christians and Jews from military service through payment of a tax was eliminates, compelling all Syrian residents to join the army. This was a terrible prospect of the religious Jews of Aleppo because military service in a Muslim army would threaten certain religious observances (Sabbath, Kosher).

In addition, 1907-1908 were years of economic distress in Aleppo. Employment shrank, merchants were ruined and there was a depression of commercial activity. When the Aleppoan Jews heard about the small community of Jews in America, who were successfully making money, they began to travel to America.


My Father's Side

The ship my great grandparents arrived on

My great grandfather (father's mother's father), Abraham, was born in Aleppo, Syria circa 1902. He came to America in 1924. In 1932, Abraham was ready to marry and returned to Aleppo to find a wife. When he got to Syria, he met with the father of the girl he was arranged to marry, but he didn't like her. He married her younger sister instead. Abraham and Adele got married in Syria in 1932. Since traveling conditions were so harsh, Abraham got married without any of his family members. Abraham and Adele Sultan went to Israel on their honeymoon and then returned to America. When Abraham and Adele arrived in America, they lived with Abraham's parents and siblings on Bay Parkway and 67th Street. They had four children together in that house. Abraham wanted to be a doctor but because he didn't have enough money he was forced to be a peddler on Essex Street. Abraham and Adele eventually climbed the social ladder and bought a beautiful house in Gravesend.

Abe and Adele's Children

Abraham and Adele had five children. My grandmother (father's mother) is Diana. You probably noticed that I have the same name as my grandmother. This is because the Sephardic-Syrian Jewish custom is to name the first daughter of a family after the father's mother and the first son after the father's father. Since I am the oldest girl in my family, I am named for my paternal grandmother. It is quite amusing actually, because I have four cousins each with the name Diana. It can get confusing if we are all together.

Marilyn, Tunie and Diana

My great grandfather (father's father's father), Abraham, was born in Syria in the late 1800's. He got married to Becky in Aleppo and together they had one child in Aleppo. In 1909 Abraham and Becky left Aleppo and arrived in America. Rumor has it that Abraham and Becky had another child who died of starvation on the ship. We don't know if this is true because Becky never spoke about it. Upon arriving in America, Becky was disappointed to find that gold didn't pave the streets. The family bought a house in Bensonhurst. They had ten children together and lived in a three bedroom house. The five boys slept in one room and the five girls in another. In order to support his family, Abraham was a peddler on Eldridge Street.

Talmud Torah on 67th Street

Abraham and Becky had ten children. Since my grandfather, David, was the ninth child, he was able to go to school instead of straight to work. My grandfather attended PS 205 followed by Lafayette HS. After school he attended Hebrew schooling at "Talmud Torah." However, following high school, my grandfather was forced to work to help support his family. He stocked shelves at a local grocery store, reset the pins at a bowling alley before the machines were invented and he worked at an army and navy yard during WWII. Working eight hours a day at the bowling alley, my grandfather got paid only $5 total! However, miraculously, my grandpa David amassed enough money and bought himself a car for $100. You can imagine what kind of car he was able to buy for that price...the car wouldn't start unless a few strong men pushed it and got it rolling!

In 1960, David married Diana (my paternal grandparents). David joined the business founded by his brother, and worked his way up the ladder. The stories of my great-grandparents and grandparents epitomize the notion of the American Dream.

My Mother's Side

Eliyahu, Esther's father

My great grandfather (mother's father's father), Jack, was born in Aleppo, Syria either in 1885 or 1895. We aren't sure of his birth year because two passports have been discovered, both in his name. It is believed that he had two passports in order to avoid serving in the Syrian army. Upon escaping Syria, Jack stopped in Israel, Panama and Peru. He eventually arrived in America alone and was a peddler on the Lower East Side. He slowly worked his way up and opened a successful business in Hawaii. Jack married Esther in 1932 and they lived in Bensonhurst. Esther was born in Syria in 1908. On her way to America, she stopped off in Paris. Esther was a French teacher at the French Alliance in Syria. In 1942, Jack and Esther bought a house on Ocean Parkway.

Jack and Esther had four children. My grandfather, Elliot, was born in Brooklyn in 1936 and grew up in the apartment in Bensonhurst and then on Ocean Parkway. He attended PS 215, Boody Junior High and Lincoln HS. However, Elliot dropped out of high school after his second year in order to work. Some of the jobs Elliot held were: factory worker on the East Side, worked in table cloth manufacturing, pushed a pushcart for for Conway, was a salesman, and worked in a bowling alley. After all these jobs, Elliot went into business with a friend. Together they bought two buildings in Connecticut and opened huge bargain stores. In 1963, Elliot married my grandmother, Elyse. They moved to Gravesend where they had two daughters. In 1969, they moved to NJ and had a third daughter. In addition, in 1969, Elliot and his brother Ronnie united and opened a children's clothing business.

Adele's Parents

My great grandfather (mother's mother's father), Bert, was born in Aleppo in 1909. He came to America as an infant in 1909 with his four siblings. They escaped Syria due to the anti-Semitism as well as economic hardships of the day. Upon arriving in America, the family settled on the Lower East Side where they were peddlers. Bert used to say, "in the winters we slept in the kitchen to be near the stove and in the summers we slept on the fire escape." Bert dropped out of high school in order to help support his family. In the 1920's, the family moved to Bensonhurst, Brooklyn. They then moved Gravesend. In 1939, Bert was introduced to his wife, Adele (born in 1921). Adele was born in America. Bert and Adele were married and settled in Gravesend.

Bert and Adele had five children.My grandmother, Elyse,was born in Brooklyn in 1943. She went to Coleridge school in Manhattan Beach followed by Yeshivah of Flatbush Elementary School, Lincoln HS and Brooklyn College. In 1963, Elyse married "the guy around the corner," Elliot.


Me and my grandparents, Elliot and Elyse
Me and my grandparents, David and Diana

My paternal grandparents, David and Diana, bought homes in Midwood approximately forty years ago. They had four children together. Each son has since built a family of his own. My father married my mother in 1987 and they have three children.

My maternal grandparents, Elliot and Elyse, had three daughters. Their daughters were brought up in NJ and all went on to build families of their own.

Midterm Essays

Joseph Berger: Describe how specific neighborhoods have shifted populations over time. Give two examples of different immigrants groups in different neighborhoods.

Due to various Push and Pull factors, there has been a steady influx of immigrants to the United States, primarily to New York. Upon arriving in America, immigrants tend to settle in neighborhoods with their friends and families from their respective countries of origin. Therefore, immigrant groups often dominate certain neighborhoods and transform them into microcosms of their original countries. For instance, if one were to walk through a primarily Russian neighborhood, one would see signs in Russian, stores selling Russian goods, Russian restaurants and the like. Upon establishing themselves in America and climbing the social ladder, immigrants tend to relocate. Therefore, populations of specific neighborhoods have constantly shifted. Based on Joseph Berger’s book, World in a City, two New York City neighborhoods that have followed such a pattern are Astoria and East Harlem.

For about half a century, the Greeks dominated Astoria. Greek cafes and Greek shops lined the streets. However, as the Greeks became more successful, they made enough money to move to different neighborhoods. They moved to more spacious neighborhoods such as Bayside, Queens and Roslyn, Long Island. As the Greeks left, other immigrant groups took over. Middle Easterners and North Africans quickly settled in Astoria and transformed it into a predominately Muslim, Arabic speaking city. Brazilian immigrants chose to settle in Astoria as well, struggling to make money to support their families back home in Brazil.

Joseph Berger explains the transformation of Astoria from a Greek enclave to a predominately Arab community by exploring several conditions. Firstly, as Greece became more and more prosperous, less Greeks were motivated to leave the country. Therefore, there was a decline in the Greek immigrant population. Secondly, as second generation Greek immigrants immersed themselves in American culture and found themselves more prestigious jobs, they were not interested in settling in Astoria. Also, it makes logical sense that Middle Easterners chose to settle in Astoria because Greeks and Middle Easterners share many common cultural practices. Immigrants tend to settle in cities where they feel most at home.

Another neighborhood that underwent a dramatic shift in population was East Harlem. Ever since the end of the nineteenth century, Italians have dominated East Harlem. Today, East Harlem has been transformed into “Spanish Harlem.” Dominicans, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans have flooded the neighborhood. Names such as Torres and Guaragno have replaced names like Caponigro and Marucci. The reasons behind this shift in population groups are similar to those explaining the Astoria phenomenon. Many Italians immigrated to America in the late nineteenth century and settled on the Lower East Side, amidst the congestion of Manhattan. Upon climbing the social ladder, the Italians then moved to Harlem, away from the crowdedness of the Lower East Side. Years later, the Italians were ready to “depart East Harlem for sweeter prospects, ready to live on the leafier fringes…in suburban homes…And they could afford to do so now that they held jobs that required more brains than brawn” (Berger, 38).

The common thread linking Astoria and East Harlem with countless other immigrant neighborhoods is its shifting population. It is a social phenomenon, as immigrant groups become wealthier; they leave their communities and resettle in nicer areas. Although moving away from one’s community can take an emotional toll, apparently immigrants are willing to trade their emotional connection to a community for a more comfortable lifestyle. “As immigrants of one nationality make it, they forsake the jostling streets, and newer immigrants, hoping to make their fortunes, move in…it’s an upward mobility kind of thing” (Berger, 5).

Nathan Glazer and Daniel Moynihan: Pick one group and describe it assimilation process. Has this group truly melted into the pot?

New York’s large immigrant community has prompted many to refer to New York as a “melting pot.” Those who agree with this comparison explain that just as when one melts different types of metals in a pot, the metals are no longer distinguishable from one another, so too, as immigrants from different countries arrive in America, they shed their unique cultures and simply become part of the American mixture. However, this idea of complete assimilation is often not the case. In their work, Beyond the Melting Pot, Nathan Glazer and Daniel Moynihan prove that “the point about the melting pot…is that it did not happen” (Glazer and Moynihan, xcvii). One of the groups Glazer and Moynihan explored were the Eastern European Jewish immigrants. Jewish immigration to New York occurred mainly in the early twentieth century. By 1924, there were almost two million Jews in New York City. The Eastern European Jews immersed themselves in American culture, educated themselves and immediately became economic successes. The Americans were bothered by the successful Jews and wanted to ensure that Jews would not rise to the higher ranks of society. The Jews were therefore excluded from social organizations, preparatory schools and the nicer neighborhoods. Institutionalized exclusion of Jews was eliminated in the mid-twentieth century, yet the Jews never did fully integrate into American society.

There are various reasons explaining the failure of the Jews to melt into the pot. Firstly, very few Jews intermarried. In 1957, only three and a half percent of American Jewry had intermarried. Since Beyond the Melting Pot was written in the early 1960’s, the statistics are no longer applicable today. More recent studies show that in 1985, fifty two percent of Jews had intermarried. Based on the two statistics, one could conclude that perhaps the Jews today are assimilating more quickly than their predecessors. Another reason why the Jews in America (before 1960) did not melt into the pot was because most Jews preferred to live in all-Jewish neighborhoods. Despite the fact that the acculturation of the Jews has proceeded, Jews still tend to live apart in mostly Jewish neighborhoods. This is even more prevalent among Orthodox Jews, who make the extra effort to keep themselves from assimilating. Orthodox Jews often send their children to private schools (yeshivas), dress in traditional clothing and maintain different outlooks on life. Lastly, when building families, Jews tended to be more protective of their children than non-Jews. Therefore, Jewish families have had fewer problems with issues such as alcoholism and child abuse. The family unit was and still is, a strong tie that holds the Jewish community together.

The Jewish emphasis on family life has kept many Jews close to home and connected to Jewish heritage. Synagogues, philanthropic organizations and private schools have enabled Jews to maintain tight-knit communities as well. However, Glazer and Moynihan claim that the purpose of this “Jewish togetherness” has been to “maintain separateness” (Glazer and Moynihan, 176). The problem Jews face today is how to properly balance their involvement in American culture with maintaining their Jewish identities. According to Glazer and Moynihan, “the Jewish dilemma [is] finding, in this amorphous society, a balance between separation and the loss of identity” (Glazer and Moynihan, 180).

Nancy Foner: Describe one similarity and one difference between the two waves of immigrants to New York City in terms of how they adapted to New York life.

In her work, From Ellis Island to JFK, Nancy Foner explores the differences between the two major waves of immigrants to America: those who arrived before 1960 (primarily between 1880 and 1920) and those who arrived after 1960. The first major wave of immigrants, consisting largely of Italians and Russian Jews, flooded New York City in the late nineteenth century/early twentieth century. Post 1960, the majority of the immigrants to New York City were from Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Foner effectively compares these two waves of immigrants via close analysis of where they lived and the jobs they held.

The Italians and Russian Jews who immigrated to America in the early twentieth century lived in extremely crowded tenements on the Lower East Side. Although the Jews and Italians lived side by side, there was rarely any intermingling. In fact, there was such ethnic clustering that Jews and Italians lived on separate blocks. As the Jews and Italians improved their social and economic standing, they “left the primary immigrant ghettoes for a better grade of housing in secondary areas” (Foner, 41). The Jews and Italians followed the pattern of ethnic succession and moved to less crowded areas such as Harlem, the Bronx and Brooklyn. The immigrants today however, often arrive in America with more resources and therefore settle in suburban areas immediately. In fact, in 1980, thirty three percent of immigrants settled outside New York City. As previously mentioned, the first wave of immigrants chose to live in ethnic clusters. The more recent immigrants however, are more dispersed throughout the New York area. Many immigrant groups “have no one neighborhood they can truly call their own and where they are a single dominant group” (Foner, 57). Communities can no longer be categorized as Little Italy or “Jewtown”. For instance, there is no one neighborhood that the Filipinos dominate.

A second major difference between the two waves of immigrants is how well prepared they were to enter mainstream American life. The Jewish and Italian immigrants were primarily poor, non-English speaking, often illiterate, unskilled workers. Italians and Jews worked as shoemakers, tailors, butchers, carpenters and the like. More recent immigrants are often poor and unskilled as well. They often arrive in America lacking all necessary training that would enable them to climb the social ladder. However, in addition to the unskilled workers that have arrived recently, there have been many skilled professionals immigrating to America as well. “In the early 1990s, more than a quarter of male and a third of female immigrants entering New York City…were professionals, executives and managers” (Foner, 73). Yet these skilled professionals often encounter difficulties obtaining jobs due to their lack of networking, job experience in America, licenses, green cards and fluency in English.

One similarity between the two waves of immigrants is that both groups have come to America in order to better themselves and their families. Therefore both new and old immigrants have been willing to take jobs that no one else will take. The Italians opted to dig tunnels and today the Mexicans wash dishes. Another similarity between the two waves of immigrants is that both groups were forced to endure terrible working conditions. However, while the Italians and Jews arrived in America at a time of increased demand for unskilled labor, today there is no such demand. The only reason the more recent immigrants have been able to succeed in New York is because the whites have been migrating out.

Discuss multiculturalism, cultural pluralism and assimilationism. Which one most accurately depicts New York City?

There are three major theories used to describe the way in which immigrants should adapt to American life: assimilationism, cultural pluralism and multiculturalism. Assimilationism is the idea that as soon as immigrants arrive on American soil, they should immerse themselves in American culture and disconnect themselves from their origins. Assimilationists believe that an ideal situation would be for all the immigrant groups to completely “melt into the pot.” This notion of assimilationism was widely accepted from the end of the nineteenth century until the mid twentieth century. Immigrants arriving in America during those times worked hard to mainstream into American society. Immigrants gave up their traditional clothing, food and culture in exchange for a sense of belonging.

The second theory on immigration is cultural pluralism. Cultural pluralism is the idea that there should be one dominating American culture with several culturally distinct groups within. Cultural pluralists advocate that immigrants should immerse themselves in American culture, while maintaining a connection to their original cultures as well. Immigrants should become American; yet keep certain behaviors. The third theory on immigration is multiculturalism. Multiculturalism calls for immigrants to preserve their original cultures and to remain entirely separate. There should be no umbrella American culture. Multiculturalists envision a society in which each immigrant group lives exactly as they did in their countries of origin, without any infiltration of American culture. The idea of multiculturalism is the direct opposite of assimilationism.

Upon analyzing the three ideas of how immigrants should behave in America, it is evident that assimilationism and multiculturalism are the two extremes, while cultural pluralism is the moderate idea in between. Throughout the course of American history, we have seen instances where immigrants have tried very hard not to change and to remain strictly multicultural, yet they were inevitably affected by their environs and have become cultural pluralists. For instance, there was recently an upheaval in the Jewish Hasidic community (one of the most tight knit communities) because a popular singer incorporated an American secular tune into his song. The same is true in the opposite direction. There have been immigrant groups who have chosen to completely assimilate; yet were unable to (language barrier, race) and have therefore become cultural pluralists as well. The Eastern European Jewish immigrants of the early twentieth century are prime examples of people who wanted to assimilate but couldn’t because of various factors (illiteracy, non-English speaking).

Today, I believe New York City is largely culturally pluralistic. There certainly is an American culture of apple pie and baseball games that is felt by all. Yet within this scope of American culture lie dozens of subcultures. There are Chinese, Italian, Israeli and Turkish restaurants. There are churches, mosques and synagogues. There are neighborhoods such as Chinatown and Williamsburg. Individual cultures have been maintained amidst the larger American culture.