Memo 2: Timeline

Topic: Environmentally Friendly Buses

1990 Two CNG buses purchased for testing
Two CNG buses were purchased for initial testing to reduce pollution. They were the guinea pigs in an experiment to help decrease pollution in all of New York City. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

1991 CNG Buses Introduced
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline. It does create pollution but to a degree much lower than its alternatives. These buses were the beginning of a completely new era and was the first step taken to ensure that emissions from buses were reduced. CNG buses are still present today and are still being purchased for use. (Compressed Natural Gas).

1994 32 additional CNG buses purchased
32 additional CNG buses were purchased to further test their capabilities of being more environmentally friendly. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

1996 10 Orion VI purchased
10 models of the Orion VI hybrid buses were purchased. They are being used for evaluation. (Diesel Electric Hybrid Buses).

1998 10 Orion VI vehicles begin operating
The preliminary tests were positive and satisfied the evaluation. The ten models of Orion VI began operating at this point for evaluation in comparison to CNG buses. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

1999 190 CNG buses purchased
After testing, 190 CNG buses were purchased due to the positive results of using CNG as a fuel. This is to further add to NYC’s slowly growing number of more environmentally efficient buses. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2000 Governor Pataki Approved Spending Plan
A five-year spending plan was approved for the purchase of compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses. A large budget was set aside for these buses that would greatly improve the fleet. (MTA NYC Transit).

2000 Conversion to ULSD
First transportation system to convert all buses to using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. All buses that run on diesel fuel will be using this type to be more environmentally friendly. Also it prepares for the new upcoming exhaust filter program. (Mother Clare Hale Bus Depot).

2000 Particle filters installed
Particle filters on the buses have been installed to further help eliminate diesel emissions. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2001 5 NovaBus purchased
5 NovaBus Hybrids were purchased. Only one was delivered. They were retired due to the many problems with them. (Diesel Electric Hybrid Buses).

2002 Improvements to engines
Old engines and exhaust systems were replaced to help make the older buses cleaner. (From Hybrid Batteries…).

2003 Two stroke diesel engines retired
All two stroke diesel engines have been retired at this point due to large emissions. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2003 125 Hybrid Electric Buses Purchased
In 2003, the MTA changed their bus fleet to hybrid electric. They ordered the Orion VII model from Orion International that contains a lithium ion battery rather than lead acid. 125 vehicles were ordered. These buses were the first step from the MTA to make their buses hybrid electric. The Orion VII model also has the patented HybriDrive system that makes it hybrid and electric. The engine is controlled by HybriDrive, which powers the generator. The generator powers the motor that makes the bus move. The generator also recharges the battery placed on top of the vehicles. The battery at the top of the bus is used for acceleration and when the bus needs to climb hills. A braking system is also present where it recovers energy during braking and stores it in the battery. With regenerative braking, it allows most of the energy from the generator to be recovered during the process. This technology is extremely crucial to buses in particular due to the constant stopping. In addition, it also slows down brake wear. Both the engine and the generator make up the hybrid electric system of the vehicle. With this combination, the bus produces very low emissions and has much higher gas mileage. Diesel fuel is only used to run the engine, which in turn powers the generator. The generator also assists in driving the traction motor to make the bus move. The buses also contain a diesel particle filter that further mitigates the exhaust emissions. It is said that these buses are expected to reduce up to 90% in total emissions. (NYCT Hybrid and CNG).

2004 200 additional Orion VII purchased
200 more additional Orion VII Hybrid electric buses were purchased due to the positive results from the first batch. (NYCT Hybrid and CNG).

2005 50 hybrid buses proposed for purchase
50 more additional hybrid buses was proposed for purchase by 2006. This resulted in 385 hybrid buses in the fleet. (MTA NYC Transit).

2005 30% Hybrid at five depots
At this point, the 385 hybrid vehicles represent 30% of the total number of buses in the assigned depots. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2005 (Late) 500 additional vehicles purchased
500 additional vehicles were purchased to bring the number of hybrid electric buses to almost 800. (Orion Hybrid/Electric Buses…).

2006 CNG numbers to rise to 641
The number of CNG buses are planned to rise to 641 in 2006 from the current 221. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2006 23% clean buses
The combination of CNG and hybrid electric buses will almost represent 23% of the total bus fleet. (NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses).

2007 Storm Preparation
MTA began to prepare for storms such as emergency response centers and early warning capabilities. (August 8, 2007 Storm Report)

2008 Select Bus Service Introduced
In March 2008, Select Bus Service was introduced. Select Bus Service had a few goals in mind. One method was to give buses an exclusive part of the road. These partitions are strictly enforced and prevent other cars from sharing the lanes. These buses are also used to carry people to their location faster and more efficiently. With dedicated lanes on the road, buses spend less time idling and more time reaching their destination. Even though it was not the initial intention for the program, it mitigated pollution and helped conserve fuel. (Selective Bus Service).

2009 Mother Clare Hale Bus Depot
Newly constructed bus depot will have all vehicles on site using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. (Mother Clare Hale Bus Depot).

2009 NYC leads hybrid bus
New York City has the most hybrid buses out of many developed countries. (As Hybrid Buses Get Cheaper…).

2011-2012 Orion VII Third Generation
90 newly upgraded Orion VII Third Generation models were purchased. These buses had slight improvements in the engine and generator that would help further assist in reducing emissions. (MTA Regional Bus Operations bus fleet).

2012 CNG and Hybrid buses in fleet
Currently have 1107 CNG buses and 875 diesel electric buses. One of the largest “green” bus fleets. (Greening Mass Transit & Metro Regions).

2015 Climate change adaptation plan
A full climate change adaptation plan will be in place with specifics regarding financing. (Greening Mass Transit & Metro Regions).

Works Cited

August 8, 2007 Storm Report. Rep. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

Barnitt, R., and K. Chandler. New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses. Rep. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel.” Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel. California Energy Commission, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“From Hybrid Batteries to Old Bus Windows Efficiency Is in High Gear at NYC Transit.” From Hybrid Batteries to Old Bus Windows Efficiency Is in High Gear at NYC Transit. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

Greening Mass Transit & Metro Regions. Rep. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

Maynard, Micheline. “As Hybrid Buses Get Cheaper, Cities Fill Their Fleets.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 22 Oct. 2009. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“Mother Clare Hale Bus Depot Replacement Charrette Report.” Mother Clare Hale Bus Depot Replacement Charrette Report. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

MTA NYC Transit. N.p.: MTA NYC Transit, 2001. Diesel Hybrid Electric Buses. US Department of Energy. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

MTA New York City Transit. N.p.: n.p., 2003. MTA New York City Transit. US Department of Energy. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“MTA Regional Bus Operations Bus Fleet.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Mar. 2013. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

NYCT Disel Hybrid-Electric Buses. Rep. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“Orion Hybrid/Electric Buses Are Key To Cleaner Air And Improved Economy.” MTA Press Release. MTA, 29 Nov. 2005. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

“Select Bus Service.” MTA Planning. MTA, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .

This entry was posted in Timelines. Bookmark the permalink.