Science Forward Fall 2017

Dr. Edyta Greer, Macaulay Honors College, Fall 2017

Author: Francesca Adamski

Pharmoris – Final Poster Draft

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Pharmoris: Annotated Bibliography

Peer-Reviewed Sources: 


Powar, P. V., P. H. Sharma, and S. S. Sharma. 2014. “Pharmacosomes: A novel drug delivery system.” The Pharma Innovation Journal 3, no. 10 (November 30): 94-100. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi:10.22271/tpi.

  • This article was written by S. S. Sharma from the Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, as well as P. V. Powar and P. H. Sharma from the Department of Pharmaceuticals at the College of Pharmacy in India. This article provides important background information regarding the development of Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS); furthermore, the article outlines the various categories of NDDS and their respective medical applications. Relevant to our project, one of the categories discussed in detail is pharmacosomes (a type of liposomal drug delivery system). Specifically, the article explains the pharmacological features of pharmacosomes,  as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using them over other NDDS. For example, pharmacosomes are the preferable method of drug delivery because, through this method, the  drug is covalently linked; subsequently, loss due to leakage of drug, does not take place. Additionally, the article describes different methods for preparing pharmacosomes (e.g. injection method vs. hand-shaking method). This information is useful for our project because it aids in understanding how pharmacosomes function and provides evidence of their viability for the oral administration of anticancer drugs.


Khan, David R. 2010. “The Use of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy.” Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy 2, no. 3 (May 10): 58-62. Accessed October 22, 2017. doi:10.4172/1948-5956.1000024.

  • This peer-reviewed article was written by Dr. David R. Khan from the Department of Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics at West Texas A&M University and published in the Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy. This article outlines the use of nanocarriers (such as liposomes, pharmacosomes, etc.) for drug delivery in cancer therapy; more specifically, it discusses the advantages of nanocarriers and their propensity for success in targeted anticancer treatments, as well as addresses some of the obstacles associated with drug transfer to cancer cells, and achieving uniform drug distribution at the tumor site, amongst others. According to the article, two of the (arguably) most significant advantages of using nanocarriers for drug delivery are (1) they can improve the pharmacological properties of traditional chemotherapeutics, and (2) because of their small size, they are able to effectively deliver encapsulated anticancer drugs to tumor tissue–regardless of vascular defects commonly observed at tumor sites due to the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). This article will be a useful resource for our project because it offers an in-depth explanation of nanocarriers’ functions and provides relevant examples of completed clinical trials demonstrating the success of nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy.        

Popular Source: 


  1. “How New Cancer Treatments Are Shaping Lives.” The New York Times (May 15). Accessed October 22, 2017.
  • This online article published in The New York Times Magazine was not written by one individual; rather, it is comprised of condensed and edited responses from six New York Times readers detailing their personal experiences–good and bad–with new cancer treatments. The treatments mentioned in the article are as follows: crizotinib (an ALK inhibitor), PET scans to gauge individual responses to treatment, immunotherapy drugs, Atezolizumab (a monoclonal antibody), and olaparib (first PARP inhibitor approved for treatment of ovarian or breast cancer). While the article does not explicitly mention/ discuss liposomal drug delivery systems, it does well to show the many different kinds of therapies/ treatments that are being developed and used in the fight against cancer. Moreover, it highlights the difficulties patients often face when navigating and undergoing cancer treatment. This information could be used in our project as evidence of the need for new cancer treatments, especially treatments that are more targeted and less invasive.  

Papaver somniferum

Papaver somniferum is the Latin name for the opium poppy, a flowering plant whose unripe seeds are utilized in the derivation of various substances such as opium, heroin, morphine, and codeine amongst others. The first known instance of the opium poppy’s cultivation occurred sometime around 3400 BC, originating in lower Mesopotamia (Southwest Asia). From then, the plant was passed on to many different civilizations, effectively increasing its demand and spreading its cultivation along the Silk Road. One of the reasons opium was so greatly desired was the molecule’s capacity to produce powerful pain-relieving and euphoric effects (when used more recreationally).


Poster Idea – Healthcare Innovation

According to, “For women in the U.S., breast cancer death rates are higher than those for any other cancer, besides lung cancer.”; moreover, “1 in 8  U.S. women (12%) are expected to develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.” This grave issue  is particularly important to me because a little less than two years ago, my aunt suffered a third recurrence of breast cancer that resulted in her passing away. When she was initially diagnosed (approximately 15 years ago), everyone in the family was extremely surprised–though the precise causes of breast cancer are still unknown, my aunt did not seem to be at especially high risk for developing breast cancer (i.e. she maintained a very healthy diet, there was absolutely no family history of breast cancer, etc.).

Arguably some of the most frustrating things faced during my aunt’s final recurrence of breast cancer were complications with treatment/ medication and lack of detection. I can’t help but wonder if this was due to less diligence in care following remission, difficulty with covering subsequent costs of treatment, or a combination of the two. This is yet another fact that frustrates me–all too often, financing such astronomical medical expenses poses significant obstacles for both patients as well as their families, and countless unnecessary deaths occur as a result of insufficient funds for medical treatment/ the continuation of medical treatment. Thus, I believe there needs to be an affordable healthcare innovation that targets cancer cells and not healthy cells. Maybe this could be accomplished by developing a pill containing some compound that only binds to cancer cells in addition to another orally delivered form (i.e. a pill) of chemotherapy that includes a compound that is attracted to the previously administered compound as well as antimetabolites, which according to the American Cancer Society, “interfere with DNA and RNA growth by substituting for the normal building blocks of RNA and DNA. These agents damage cells during the phase when the cell’s chromosomes are being copied. They are commonly used to treat leukemias, cancers of the breast, ovary, and the intestinal tract, as well as other types of cancer.”

Will ketamine treat your depression? Check your activity monitor

Popular Article:

Will ketamine treat your depression? Check your activity monitor (from press release*)

2017. “Will ketamine treat your depression? Check your activity monitor.” ScienceDaily (August 15). Accessed September 6, 2017.

Bugno, Rhiannon. 2017. “Will ketamine treat your depression? Check your activity monitor.” Elsevier (August 14). Accessed September 6, 2017.

Primary Source:

Motor-Activity Markers of Circadian Timekeeping Are Related to Ketamine’s Rapid Antidepressant Properties

Duncan, Wallace C., Elizabeth Slonena, Nadia S. Hejazi, Nancy Brutsche, Kevin C. Yu, Lawrence Park, Elizabeth D. Ballard, and Carlos A. Zarate, Jr. 2017. “Motor-Activity Markers of Circadian Timekeeping Are Related to Ketamine’s Rapid Antidepressant Properties.” Biological Psychiatry 82, no. 5 (September 1): 361-69. Accessed September 6, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.03.011.


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